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Stark Disparities in Employment and Wages for Black New Yorkers

Report - August 2020

Stark Disparities in Employment and Wages for Black New Yorkers

The growing mass movement for racial justice has shined a light on harsh disparities affecting nearly every facet of American life—from criminal justice and policing to the health and economic effects of the pandemic. This new analysis examines disparities in employment and wages experienced by Black residents of New York City, finding widespread underrepresentation and alarming wage gaps across dozens of industries.

by Jonathan Bowles, Eli Dvorkin, and Charles Shaviro

Tags: economic opportunity data inequality

In recent weeks, the growing mass movement for racial justice has shined a light on harsh disparities affecting nearly every facet of American life—from criminal justice and policing to the health and economic effects of the pandemic. This new analysis examines disparities in employment and wages experienced by Black residents of New York City, finding widespread underrepresentation across dozens of industries and alarming wage gaps.

This analysis shows that Black New Yorkers hold a shockingly small share of the jobs in a wide array of well-paying industries—not just in finance and technology, but also in creative fields, construction, manufacturing, and business services.

Black New Yorkers account for just 7 percent of the workforce in advertising, 7 percent in the securities industry, 8 percent in publishing, 9 percent in computer systems design (the largest field within the tech sector), 9 percent in motion pictures and video, 13 percent in legal services, and 16 percent in construction, even though Black New Yorkers make up 21 percent of the overall workforce and 22 percent of the city’s population.

Black New Yorkers are also underrepresented in many industries with a significant number of accessible, middle-wage jobs, comprising just 10 percent of all workers in dental offices, 12 percent in doctor’s offices, and 14 percent in food manufacturing, among others.

In addition to these workforce disparities, this analysis finds significant income disparities between Black and white workers in nearly every industry—not just high-paying fields. For example, the median annual income for Black New Yorkers employed in the city’s department stores is barely one-third of that of their white counterparts ($15,870 vs $44,674). Black postal workers earn $41,261, compared to $59,277 earned by white colleagues. There are similarly large pay disparities between Black and white New Yorkers in the warehousing and storage industry ($25,616 vs $47,080), sporting goods stores ($18,443 vs $32,000), beauty salons ($10,474 vs $25,000), newspaper publishing ($30,500 vs $79,348), the film & tv sector ($29,321 vs $61,478), banking ($52,899 vs $123,370) and dozens of other industries.1

Indeed, Black workers earned more than their white counterparts in just 12 of the nearly 140 industries we analyzed for this report—and all but four pay less than $39,000 annually. In 33 other industries, the gap in median incomes for Black and white workers was less than $10,000. In the remaining 92 industries, the income gap was greater than $10,000. Often, industries that typically produce middle-wage jobs for white New Yorkers pay near-poverty wages to Black New Yorkers. 

The factors that produce these disparities are complex and pervasive, likely including persistent gaps in educational attainment by race and income—magnified by the effect of systemic racism. No matter the scale of the challenge, closing these gaps should be among the city’s highest policy priorities and will require a dedicated and long-term response. For the city’s economy not only to recover from the current crisis, but to reemerge more equitable and inclusive, policymakers will need to take strong steps to help more Black New Yorkers gain footholds—and advance—in a diverse range of well-paying and accessible fields. This should include major new efforts to help more Black New Yorkers earn a postsecondary credential, access high-quality job training, or start and grow a business. At the same time, industry leaders will need to develop and expand evidence-based strategies and partnerships to ensure that Black New Yorkers can participate and thrive in the city’s eventual economic rebound.

Black New Yorkers are significantly underrepresented in many of the city’s high- and middle-wage industries

Our analysis shows that Black New Yorkers make up a strikingly small share of the workforce in many of the city’s high- and middle-wage industries. This includes the finance and tech sectors, but also many of the city’s creative industries, offices of physicians and dentists, and even the more accessible manufacturing sector.

The following data shows the Black share of the workforce in a number of higher-wage and middle-wage sectors, broken down by industry category:

Creative Industries

  • 7% in advertising, public relations, and related services
  • 8% in the periodical, book, and directory publishers sector
  • 8% in architectural, engineering, and related services
  • 9% in motion pictures and video industries

Technology

  • 6% in scientific research and development services
  • 7% at software publishers2
  • 9% in computer systems design (which makes up the largest share of workers in the city’s tech sector)
  • 9% of Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals
  • 11% in data processing, hosting, and related services.
  • 12% of electronic shopping and mail order houses (which includes most e-commerce companies)

Finance and Insurance

  • 7% in securities, commodities, funds, trusts, and other financial investments, the highest-earning financial sector
  • 9% percent in the nondepository credit and related activities sector
  • 13% in banking and related activities

Medical & Dental Offices

  • 10% in offices of dentists
  • 12% at offices of physicians
  • 6% at offices of other health practitioners

Business Services

  • 8% in management, scientific, and technical consulting services
  • 12% in accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services
  • 13% in legal services

Manufacturing

  • 7% in apparel manufacturing
  • 14% in food manufacturing
  • 15% in the printing sector
  • 15% in pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing

There is a strikingly large income gap between Black and white workers in nearly every industry

Our analysis reveals a significant disparity in the median salary for Black and white workers in most industries. This includes high-wage fields like finance and tech. But more surprisingly, it includes other sectors like retail, warehousing, personal services, and even the postal service.

The following is a small sampling of the industries where median annual income is significantly lower for Black workers compared to white workers:

Retail

  • Department stores – $15,870 for Black workers vs $44,674 for white workers
  • Sporting goods stores – $18,443 vs $32,000
  • Furniture and home furnishings stores – $20,000 vs $52,000
  • Automotive parts, accessories, and tire stores – $12,568 vs $31,755
  • Clothing stores – $20,000 vs $52,899
  • Electronics stores – $25,137 vs $52,926
  • Pharmacies and drug stores – $20,102 vs $40,000
  • Beauty salons – $10,474 vs $25,000

Transportation & Warehousing

  • Warehousing and storage – $25,616 vs $47,080
  • Water transportation – $24,000 vs $36,658
  • Bus service and urban transit – $52,369 vs $68,769
  • Air transportation – $31,421 vs $65,628
  • Postal Service – $41,261 vs $59,277

Finance, Tech, Creative & Professional Services

  • Legal services – $53,984 vs $101,000
  • Banking and related activities – $52,899 vs $123,370
  • Securities, commodities, funds, trusts, and other financial investments – $70,885 vs $137,606
  • Motion pictures & video industries – $29,321 vs $61,478
  • Advertising, public relations, and related services – $63,479 vs $81,971
  • Newspaper publishers – $30,500 vs $79,348
  • Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services – $47,633 vs $69,675
  • Electronic shopping and mail-order houses – $35,000 vs $68,769
  • Real estate property managers, offices of real estate appraisers, and other activities related to real estate – $40,985 vs $58,000

In some industries, Black New Yorkers comprise a more representative share of the workforce

There are a number of industries where Black workers make up a disproportionately large share of the workforce or generally reflect their overall share (21 percent). For instance, the following data shows the Black share of the workforce in industries including:

  • Nursing care facilities – 58% of the workforce
  • Community food and housing, and emergency services – 49%
  • Investigation and security services – 48%
  • Rail transportation – 47%
  • Bus service and urban transit – 45%
  • Administration of human resource programs – 44%
  • Couriers and messengers – 39%
  • Home health care services – 38%
  • Postal services – 38%
  • Psychiatric and substance abuse hospitals – 37%
  • Public finance activities – 36%
  • Justice, public order, and safety activities – 35%
  • Department stores – 34%
  • General medical and surgical hospitals, and specialty (except psychiatric and substance abuse) hospitals – 33%
  • Individual and family services – 32%
  • Air Transportation – 32%
  • Savings institutions, including credit unions – 31%
  • Child day care services – 30%
  • Truck transportation – 27%
  • Museums, art galleries, historical sites, and similar institutions – 22%
  • Insurance carriers – 21%
  • Elementary and secondary schools – 21%
  • Automobile dealers – 20%
  • Traveler accommodation – 19%
  • Book stores & news dealers – 18%

A small number of industries show little or no pay disparities

In 12 of the nearly 140 industries we analyzed for this report, Black workers had a higher median annual income than white workers. And in 33 other industries, the gap in median annual incomes for Black and white workers was less than $10,000. The following are examples of industries with little or no differences in median annual income between Black and white workers:

  • Child day care services – $19,044 for Black workers vs $18,853 for white workers
  • Convenience stores – $23,181 vs $15,878
  • Drycleaning and laundry services – $26,463 vs $20,493
  • Nail salons and other personal care services – $10,246 vs $10,580
  • Barber shops – $21,170 vs $13,381
  • Nursing care – $35,657 vs $40,000
  • Truck transportation – $30,739 vs $35,862
  • Automotive repair and maintenance – $31,739 vs $35,000
  • Taxi and limousine service – $18,443 vs $18,524
  • Business support services - $26,449 vs $31,421
  • Construction – $43,035 vs $52,369
  • Supermarkets and other grocery stores – $18,736 vs $21,160

Understanding the gaps in workforce representation and income

This data brief is intended to shed light on the scope and scale of the disparities affecting Black New Yorkers in the city’s workforce. It does not include an in-depth analysis of their causes and contributing factors, which are complex and interconnected with issues of racism, poverty, and other socioeconomic conditions.

However, data suggests that at least some of these disparities are linked to significant gaps in postsecondary educational attainment. In many higher-paying industries, the lion’s share of job and wage growth has gone to workers with four-year college or graduate degrees. For industries with steep educational and licensing requirements—like architecture, engineering, and medicine—workers with those credentials will understandably earn more than those without them. As a result, the alarmingly low share of Black New Yorkers with those credentials likely contributes to both hiring and wage disparities. For instance, while 68.6 percent of white New Yorkers in the labor force have obtained a bachelor’s degree or higher level of education, the same is true for just 30.7 percent of Black New Yorkers.

But gaps in educational attainment alone can’t fully account for these enormous disparities. Research suggests that other forces are also at play, including hiring practices that disadvantage Black candidates, unequal access to peer networks and mentorship, the harmful effects of poverty, and the impact of systemic racism. Advancing racial justice in employment and wages will require policies that tackle all of these interconnected factors.

Although more research is needed to unpack these complex challenges and develop a full range of solutions, there are several important steps that policymakers and industry leaders can take in the near term to help narrow these disparities. These include:

  • Strengthening and expanding programs that can help more Black New Yorkers to enroll and succeed in postsecondary education, including the evidence-backed CUNY ASAP initiative.
  • Scaling up skills-building pathways that have demonstrated success in helping to diversify growing industries, such as high-quality training for tech careers and apprenticeship programs that include—but extend beyond—the building trades.
  • Investing in work-based learning opportunities, including paid internships and career exploration initiatives.
  • Recruiting industry leaders across sectors—from finance and healthcare to tech and the creative economy to retail and manufacturing—to audit and improve internal policies and practices and partner with education and training providers to design credentials, build programs, and broaden pipelines.

The Center for an Urban Future is continuing to analyze the pervasive racial disparities in employment that harm Black New Yorkers and undermine New York City’s pursuit of a more inclusive economy. Future research will dig deeper into the specific causes and effects of these disparities and tackle multiple ways that policymakers and industry leaders can help to close these gaps.
 

Methodology

In this brief, we analyze data from the U.S. Census Bureau 2018 American Community Survey 5-Year sample. We use the total pre-tax wage and salary income earned by New York residents employed in the different four-digit industries laid out in the Census’s current industrial classification system, for which there was a large enough sample for our findings to be worth noting (we analyzed the four-digit industries that have at least 400 Black workers). While we found evidence of similar disparities in representation and wages for other racial and ethnic groups, which will be addressed in future reports, this report focuses on the specific disparities affecting Black New Yorkers.

Notes

1.Software publishing employed just 214 Black New Yorkers in 2018, which is below this report’s 400-employee cutoff (see methodology above). However, these workers are part of a sufficiently large sample to be of note.

2. Disparities are calculated based on median annual wages from employment for workers in each industry.

Employment by Race/Ethnicity
Industry% Hispanic Workers% White Workers% Black Workers% AAPI Workers
Electric power generation, transmission and distribution24%38%27%8%
Natural gas distribution12%40%36%9%
Construction42%30%16%10%
Retail bakeries47%21%12%18%
Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing, except retail bakeries55%18%11%14%
Cut and sew, and apparel accessories and other apparel manufacturing25%24%7%41%
Printing and related support activities27%36%15%18%
Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing19%38%15%23%
Soap, cleaning compound, and cosmetics manufacturing32%42%9%13%
Miscellaneous fabricated metal products manufacturing28%37%22%11%
Furniture and related product manufacturing37%36%15%11%
Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing37%37%10%14%
Miscellaneous manufacturing, n.e.c.35%33%11%19%
Not specified manufacturing industries53%20%12%13%
Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers19%45%10%21%
Household appliances and electrical and electronic goods merchant wholesalers25%47%15%9%
Apparel, piece goods, and notions merchant wholesalers20%45%8%23%
Grocery and related product merchant wholesalers43%30%10%16%
Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers18%41%14%26%
Not specified wholesale trade25%36%12%26%
Automobile dealers35%28%20%12%
Automotive parts, accessories, and tire stores47%18%20%10%
Furniture and home furnishings stores25%40%20%11%
Electronics Stores29%37%18%14%
Building material and supplies dealers19%29%35%13%
Supermarkets and other grocery (except convenience) stores51%18%14%15%
Convenience Stores54%15%13%16%
Specialty food stores48%26%5%18%
Pharmacies and drug stores25%25%23%25%
Health and personal care, except drug, stores34%33%17%14%
Gasoline stations18%22%12%43%
Clothing stores30%32%22%13%
Shoe stores36%23%30%7%
Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores21%41%12%22%
Sporting goods, and hobby and toy stores34%30%25%9%
Book stores and news dealers15%42%18%24%
Department stores28%23%34%13%
General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters29%20%37%11%
Office supplies and stationery stores32%24%29%11%
Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops17%29%17%33%
Miscellaneous retail stores21%48%15%13%
Electronic shopping and mail-order houses13%51%12%19%
Not specified retail trade31%25%25%17%
Air transportation26%25%32%14%
Rail transportation18%26%47%5%
Water transportation28%38%28%6%
Truck transportation31%26%27%13%
Bus service and urban transit25%18%45%9%
Taxi and limousine service29%12%20%35%
Services incidental to transportation27%24%30%16%
Postal Service23%15%38%23%
Couriers and messengers35%17%39%6%
Warehousing and storage42%15%29%13%
Newspaper publishers16%52%13%18%
Periodical, book, and directory publishers9%73%8%8%
Motion pictures and video industries12%69%9%6%
Broadcasting (except internet)17%54%16%9%
Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals8%67%9%13%
Wired telecommunications carriers21%39%27%9%
Telecommunications, except wired telecommunications carriers27%44%16%12%
Data processing, hosting, and related services10%51%11%26%
Libraries and archives13%39%29%16%
Other information services, except libraries and archives, and internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals11%63%7%15%
Banking and related activities16%45%13%23%
Savings institutions, including credit unions20%26%31%18%
Nondepository credit and related activities18%51%9%20%
Securities, commodities, funds, trusts, and other financial investments9%63%7%19%
Insurance carriers19%44%21%13%
Agencies, brokerages, and other insurance related activities21%42%19%15%
Lessors of real estate, and offices of real estate agents and brokers30%41%17%9%
Real estate property managers, offices of real estate appraisers, and other activities related to real estate34%42%14%7%
Automotive equipment rental and leasing21%25%39%9%
Legal services16%58%13%10%
Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services12%50%12%23%
Architectural, engineering, and related services14%56%8%19%
Specialized design services15%59%8%15%
Computer systems design and related services11%58%9%21%
Management, scientific, and technical consulting services12%62%8%15%
Scientific research and development services17%58%6%16%
Advertising, public relations, and related services12%68%7%12%
Other professional, scientific, and technical services14%64%8%12%
Management of companies and enterprises22%47%16%12%
Employment services20%37%29%11%
Business support services20%40%22%12%
Travel arrangements and reservation services24%42%13%18%
Investigation and security services29%14%48%7%
Services to buildings and dwellings (except cleaning during construction and immediately after construction)61%15%17%5%
Landscaping services51%26%15%4%
Other administrative and other support services20%50%17%9%
Waste management and remediation services31%39%22%4%
Elementary and secondary schools22%47%21%8%
Colleges, universities, and professional schools, including junior colleges17%51%15%14%
Business, technical, and trade schools and training15%50%21%12%
Other schools and instruction, and educational support services17%55%11%13%
Offices of physicians26%41%12%18%
Offices of dentists32%39%10%16%
Outpatient care centers24%32%25%18%
Home health care services31%13%38%14%
Other health care services22%27%35%12%
General medical and surgical hospitals, and specialty (except psychiatric and substance abuse) hospitals20%28%33%17%
Psychiatric and substance abuse hospitals23%30%37%8%
Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)15%13%58%11%
Residential care facilities, except skilled nursing facilities18%18%53%7%
Individual and family services33%22%32%11%
Community food and housing, and emergency services27%16%49%5%
Vocational rehabilitation services21%25%42%8%
Child day care services41%17%30%9%
Performing arts companies12%68%12%7%
Spectator sports16%62%13%6%
Promoters of performing arts, sports, and similar events, agents and managers for artists, athletes, entertainers, and other public figures17%59%15%6%
Independent artists, writers, and performers11%69%11%7%
Museums, art galleries, historical sites, and similar institutions20%47%22%8%
Other amusement, gambling, and recreation industries28%39%20%10%
Traveler accommodation38%20%19%20%
Restaurants and other food services44%19%13%23%
Drinking places, alcoholic beverages33%50%9%5%
Automotive repair and maintenance46%17%20%12%
Electronic and precision equipment repair and maintenance29%27%21%22%
Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment repair and maintenance33%20%25%16%
Personal and household goods repair and maintenance38%35%14%11%
Barber shops57%21%21%1%
Beauty salons36%26%14%22%
Nail salons and other personal care services17%12%4%66%
Drycleaning and laundry services43%7%12%35%
Other personal services45%30%17%5%
Religious organizations20%43%20%14%
Civic, social, advocacy organizations, and grantmaking and giving services17%50%20%9%
Labor unions26%42%26%5%
Business, professional, political, and similar organizations18%57%11%12%
Executive offices and legislative bodies20%30%33%11%
Public finance activities10%32%36%20%
Other general government and support14%31%44%7%
Justice, public order, and safety activities24%33%35%7%
Administration of human resource programs19%23%44%11%
Administration of environmental quality and housing programs13%45%21%18%
Administration of economic programs and space research21%32%33%11%
National security and international affairs18%37%24%18%
Median Wage by Race/Ethnicity
IndustryMedian Wage, Hispanic WorkersMedian Wage, White WorkersMedian Wage, Black WorkersMedian Wage, AAPI Workers
Electric power generation, transmission and distribution$ 51,841$ 85,000$ 63,511$ 83,790
Natural gas distribution-$ 100,000$ 71,725-
Construction$ 29,623$ 52,369$ 43,035$ 25,391
Retail bakeries$ 18,853$ 21,160$ 16,000$ 15,870
Bakeries and tortilla manufacturing, except retail bakeries$ 21,312$ 29,900$ 24,000$ 13,616
Cut and sew, and apparel accessories and other apparel manufacturing$ 22,500$ 58,189$ 47,609$ 19,044
Printing and related support activities$ 31,739$ 46,868$ 41,000$ 44,457
Pharmaceutical and medicine manufacturing$ 51,020$ 150,000$ 83,000$ 84,681
Soap, cleaning compound, and cosmetics manufacturing$ 33,026$ 105,851$ 63,511$ 73,000
Miscellaneous fabricated metal products manufacturing$ 24,823$ 41,895$ 42,108-
Furniture and related product manufacturing$ 26,463$ 50,000$ 49,750$ 35,611
Medical equipment and supplies manufacturing$ 27,050$ 75,000$ 50,000$ 32,179
Miscellaneous manufacturing, n.e.c.$ 21,785$ 47,133$ 28,580$ 24,591
Not specified manufacturing industries$ 22,542$ 55,511$ 48,667$ 50,000
Professional and commercial equipment and supplies merchant wholesalers$ 33,872$ 79,388$ 40,985$ 30,739
Household appliances and electrical and electronic goods merchant wholesalers$ 39,000$ 60,335$ 61,478$ 30,739
Apparel, piece goods, and notions merchant wholesalers$ 46,109$ 68,803$ 47,132$ 47,633
Grocery and related product merchant wholesalers$ 31,739$ 48,800$ 33,516$ 31,000
Wholesale electronic markets and agents and brokers$ 41,895$ 56,355$ 41,895$ 43,035
Not specified wholesale trade$ 26,463$ 42,319$ 20,947$ 31,316
Automobile dealers$ 31,421$ 48,000$ 37,705$ 34,913
Automotive parts, accessories, and tire stores$ 21,995$ 31,755$ 12,568$ 25,616
Furniture and home furnishings stores$ 22,229$ 52,000$ 20,000$ 36,307
Electronics Stores$ 25,193$ 52,926$ 25,137$ 35,000
Building material and supplies dealers$ 22,429$ 32,797$ 23,567$ 21,160
Supermarkets and other grocery (except convenience) stores$ 20,102$ 21,160$ 18,736$ 17,805
Convenience Stores$ 17,419$ 15,878$ 23,181$ 21,517
Specialty food stores$ 20,947$ 21,170$ 19,794$ 16,293
Pharmacies and drug stores$ 17,500$ 40,000$ 20,102$ 25,000
Health and personal care, except drug, stores$ 24,557$ 63,479$ 30,000$ 27,232
Gasoline stations$ 14,977$ 27,839$ 38,087$ 17,995
Clothing stores$ 17,986$ 52,899$ 20,000$ 26,463
Shoe stores$ 15,700$ 35,862$ 13,616$ 23,055
Jewelry, luggage, and leather goods stores$ 27,232$ 45,516$ 19,673$ 30,739
Sporting goods, and hobby and toy stores$ 18,443$ 32,000$ 18,443$ 19,900
Book stores and news dealers$ 10,369$ 24,090$ 24,900$ 24,090
Department stores$ 20,000$ 44,674$ 15,870$ 26,184
General merchandise stores, including warehouse clubs and supercenters$ 17,419$ 36,658$ 17,562$ 15,870
Office supplies and stationery stores$ 16,394$ 23,567$ 23,567-
Gift, novelty, and souvenir shops$ 17,000$ 31,421$ 40,985$ 15,711
Miscellaneous retail stores$ 21,995$ 52,369$ 15,243$ 23,276
Electronic shopping and mail-order houses$ 33,000$ 68,769$ 35,000$ 46,000
Not specified retail trade$ 20,947$ 33,000$ 24,591$ 25,000
Air transportation$ 31,739$ 65,628$ 31,421$ 46,109
Rail transportation$ 68,651$ 80,447$ 63,511-
Water transportation$ 45,000$ 36,658$ 24,000-
Truck transportation$ 25,404$ 35,862$ 30,739$ 24,340
Bus service and urban transit$ 44,457$ 68,769$ 52,369$ 58,404
Taxi and limousine service$ 12,500$ 18,524$ 18,443$ 12,568
Services incidental to transportation$ 29,536$ 52,369$ 30,739$ 33,516
Postal Service$ 52,369$ 59,277$ 41,261$ 60,747
Couriers and messengers$ 25,616$ 42,864$ 26,184$ 35,971
Warehousing and storage$ 22,852$ 47,080$ 25,616$ 30,000
Newspaper publishers$ 33,855$ 79,348$ 30,500$ 70,174
Periodical, book, and directory publishers$ 44,457$ 65,000$ 47,633$ 74,058
Motion pictures and video industries$ 33,872$ 61,478$ 29,321$ 51,232
Broadcasting (except internet)$ 58,189$ 92,169$ 54,463$ 52,899
Internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals$ 52,000$ 119,551$ 68,079$ 120,000
Wired telecommunications carriers$ 41,895$ 85,045$ 63,890$ 74,058
Telecommunications, except wired telecommunications carriers$ 37,048$ 90,074$ 57,605$ 42,340
Data processing, hosting, and related services-$ 84,681$ 39,800$ 49,490
Libraries and archives$ 39,145$ 48,667$ 40,000$ 32,000
Other information services, except libraries and archives, and internet publishing and broadcasting and web search portals$ 71,725$ 100,508$ 69,862$ 99,500
Banking and related activities$ 54,463$ 123,370$ 52,899$ 80,000
Savings institutions, including credit unions$ 42,340$ 50,809$ 42,000-
Nondepository credit and related activities$ 46,109$ 105,851$ 63,000$ 97,340
Securities, commodities, funds, trusts, and other financial investments$ 93,102$ 137,606$ 70,885$ 116,436
Insurance carriers$ 52,256$ 84,638$ 52,369$ 73,316
Agencies, brokerages, and other insurance related activities$ 46,000$ 74,058$ 47,609$ 51,232
Lessors of real estate, and offices of real estate agents and brokers$ 40,985$ 54,463$ 38,321$ 42,000
Real estate property managers, offices of real estate appraisers, and other activities related to real estate$ 38,000$ 58,000$ 40,985$ 30,000
Automotive equipment rental and leasing$ 30,374$ 52,926$ 30,739-
Legal services$ 52,369$ 101,000$ 53,984$ 61,478
Accounting, tax preparation, bookkeeping, and payroll services$ 39,377$ 69,675$ 47,633$ 62,000
Architectural, engineering, and related services$ 60,000$ 75,411$ 56,355$ 68,079
Specialized design services$ 50,000$ 54,000$ 38,000$ 50,000
Computer systems design and related services$ 60,335$ 92,217$ 77,232$ 80,000
Management, scientific, and technical consulting services$ 57,380$ 78,553$ 52,369$ 71,725
Scientific research and development services$ 57,605$ 65,577$ 48,389$ 63,511
Advertising, public relations, and related services$ 62,842$ 81,971$ 63,479$ 83,790
Other professional, scientific, and technical services$ 22,000$ 54,306$ 33,855$ 50,809
Management of companies and enterprises$ 50,000$ 84,000$ 39,039$ 92,000
Employment services$ 24,134$ 51,232$ 26,463$ 44,000
Business support services$ 29,638$ 31,421$ 26,449$ 51,232
Travel arrangements and reservation services$ 29,623$ 52,369$ 47,609$ 29,510
Investigation and security services$ 31,755$ 37,912$ 27,232$ 22,218
Services to buildings and dwellings (except cleaning during construction and immediately after construction)$ 18,443$ 41,895$ 24,000$ 22,218
Landscaping services$ 20,493$ 31,739$ 15,878-
Other administrative and other support services$ 25,404$ 68,079$ 35,862$ 46,786
Waste management and remediation services$ 33,855$ 69,489$ 55,330$ 47,609
Elementary and secondary schools$ 39,165$ 56,073$ 47,132$ 51,000
Colleges, universities, and professional schools, including junior colleges$ 37,399$ 60,747$ 43,377$ 42,319
Business, technical, and trade schools and training$ 36,887$ 46,109$ 36,000$ 12,568
Other schools and instruction, and educational support services$ 15,878$ 23,816$ 24,000$ 17,500
Offices of physicians$ 30,000$ 43,990$ 34,000$ 31,755
Offices of dentists$ 29,744$ 33,855$ 31,421$ 31,421
Outpatient care centers$ 33,516$ 51,000$ 40,000$ 41,261
Home health care services$ 17,995$ 27,000$ 21,517$ 18,500
Other health care services$ 34,931$ 54,000$ 39,780$ 37,048
General medical and surgical hospitals, and specialty (except psychiatric and substance abuse) hospitals$ 46,050$ 72,000$ 46,109$ 70,000
Psychiatric and substance abuse hospitals$ 33,516$ 76,000$ 43,399-
Nursing care facilities (skilled nursing facilities)$ 30,681$ 40,000$ 35,657$ 40,000
Residential care facilities, except skilled nursing facilities$ 31,764$ 38,936$ 31,421$ 31,421
Individual and family services$ 21,170$ 36,658$ 34,931$ 19,900
Community food and housing, and emergency services$ 37,981$ 47,132$ 35,862$ 47,609
Vocational rehabilitation services$ 31,739$ 47,132$ 25,616-
Child day care services$ 10,580$ 18,853$ 19,044$ 15,711
Performing arts companies$ 26,463$ 27,000$ 12,568$ 24,090
Spectator sports$ 31,421$ 26,394$ 18,443$ 7,406
Promoters of performing arts, sports, and similar events, agents and managers for artists, athletes, entertainers, and other public figures$ 17,419$ 31,755$ 25,000$ 33,411
Independent artists, writers, and performers$ 15,878$ 15,878$ 10,474$ 14,000
Museums, art galleries, historical sites, and similar institutions$ 33,855$ 50,274$ 25,137$ 35,862
Other amusement, gambling, and recreation industries$ 17,386$ 28,000$ 20,493$ 20,947
Traveler accommodation$ 37,048$ 56,000$ 42,319$ 46,363
Restaurants and other food services$ 21,160$ 30,000$ 18,853$ 18,000
Drinking places, alcoholic beverages$ 21,160$ 28,690$ 18,443$ 31,000
Automotive repair and maintenance$ 25,404$ 35,000$ 31,739$ 25,000
Electronic and precision equipment repair and maintenance$ 18,200$ 34,144$ 28,565$ 27,232
Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment repair and maintenance$ 31,755$ 31,421$ 45,000$ 18,000
Personal and household goods repair and maintenance$ 25,616$ 26,449$ 17,910$ 12,568
Barber shops$ 16,631$ 13,381$ 21,170-
Beauty salons$ 14,244$ 25,000$ 10,474$ 15,711
Nail salons and other personal care services$ 13,231$ 10,580$ 10,246$ 14,812
Drycleaning and laundry services$ 19,053$ 20,493$ 26,463$ 17,500
Other personal services$ 25,616$ 15,370$ 26,184$ 16,758
Religious organizations$ 22,132$ 32,788$ 25,000$ 22,542
Civic, social, advocacy organizations, and grantmaking and giving services$ 40,203$ 62,842$ 35,611$ 52,926
Labor unions$ 57,380$ 70,174$ 52,899-
Business, professional, political, and similar organizations$ 53,281$ 82,995$ 52,926$ 42,319
Executive offices and legislative bodies$ 52,000$ 69,675$ 51,232$ 68,079
Public finance activities$ 57,605$ 84,837$ 63,511$ 71,725
Other general government and support-$ 57,605$ 32,788-
Justice, public order, and safety activities$ 60,000$ 83,790$ 56,355$ 59,429
Administration of human resource programs$ 48,465$ 71,942$ 50,000$ 58,189
Administration of environmental quality and housing programs$ 63,527$ 81,464$ 60,335$ 62,842
Administration of economic programs and space research$ 63,511$ 83,000$ 58,218$ 79,388
National security and international affairs$ 50,105$ 84,681$ 52,369$ 73,316