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Data - October 2016

Where Immigrant New Yorkers Go to Work

Immigrants form an essential part of New York City's workforce. This data brief reveals where the city's immigrants go to work, including industries with a surprisingly high proportion of immigrant workers and others where immigrants are almost completely left out.

by Christian González-Rivera

Tags: immigrants workforce development inequality economic opportunity low income data

Nearly half of all workers in New York City are immigrants. From manual laborers to civil engineers, these workers form the backbone of myriad industries and play an enormous role in the city’s economy across all five boroughs.

In order to better understand the city’s immigrant workforce, this data brief breaks down the share of foreign- and native-born workers by every occupation in New York City. A dive into the data reveals a host of surprising findings, including industries with a surprisingly high proportion of immigrant workers and others where immigrants are almost completely left out.

Immigrants form a large and growing part of the city’s workforce, but they are clustered in a relatively small number of occupations. More than half of the foreign-born population works in just 27 occupations, the majority of which pay low wages for labor under tough conditions. For example, 89 percent of maids and housekeepers in Queens are foreign-born, as are 79 percent of Brooklyn’s 55,325 home health aides.

Ten Occupations with the Highest Share of Immigrant Workers

  • Pressers, textile, garment, and related: 96 percent foreign-born
  • Sewing machine operators: 93 percent
  • Dishwashers: 92 percent
  • Drywall and Ceiling Tile Installers: 91 percent
  • Taxi Drivers and Chauffers: 88 percent
  • Masons: 86 percent
  • Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers: 85 percent
  • Laundry and dry-cleaning workers: 83 percent
  • Maids and housekeeping cleaners: 83 percent
  • Painters: 82 percent

Foreign-born New Yorkers are more likely to be stuck in lower-wage jobs for a variety of reasons, including limited English proficiency (LEP), lower-than-average levels of educational achievement, and an inability to get re-credentialed in the United States for degrees obtained abroad. As a result, the median immigrant worker in the city earns just $43,700 per year, compared to the median native-born worker who earns $54,700 annually. Moreover, 28 percent of foreign-born workers earn less than $25,000 annually compared to just 14 percent of native-born workers. In New York City, the working poor tend to be immigrants.

Insecurity regarding immigration status also confines many workers to poorly paid jobs and makes workers susceptible to exploitation. Of the city’s 2.4 million working-age immigrants, approximately 700,000 are permanent residents (green card holders) and roughly 574,000 are undocumented. Only about 60,000 of these undocumented immigrants are eligible for temporary work authorization under the federal Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program.

By comparison, the occupations with the lowest share of immigrant workers tend to offer better paying jobs that provide a pathway to the middle class. This list includes occupations that could be accessible to far more immigrant workers; for example, a surprisingly high percentage of jobs in the growing film and TV production industry are held by native-born workers, as well as 92 percent of the city’s firefighter jobs.

Ten Occupations with the Lowest Share of Immigrant Workers

  • Firefighters: 92 percent native-born
  • TV/Video/Film camera operators: 87 percent
  • Writers and authors: 86 percent
  • Sound Engineering Technicians: 86 percent
  • PR specialists: 84 percent
  • Police supervisors and detectives: 84 percent
  • Actors: 84 percent
  • Lawyers, judges, and other judicial workers: 84 percent
  • Speech language pathologists: 84 percent
  • Agents and business managers of artists, performers, and athletes: 84 percent

The data also reveals many higher-wage occupations that still have a significant share of immigrant workers. In 37 different occupations throughout the city, at least 70 percent of the workforce is foreign-born. This includes low-wage jobs such as cooks and parking lot attendants (both 78 percent foreign-born), but also medical technicians (71 percent) and welding, soldering, and brazing workers (72 percent).

Ten Higher-Wage Occupations with Large Share of Foreign-Born Workers

  • Medical and life scientists: 70 percent foreign-born
  • Civil engineers: 60 percent
  • Pharmacists: 59 percent
  • Registered nurses: 58 percent
  • Tax preparers: 57 percent
  • Dentists: 55 percent
  • Travel agents: 54 percent
  • Mechanical engineers: 53 percent
  • Biological scientists: 53 percent
  • Physicians and surgeons: 45 percent

In addition, certain fields have experienced enormous growth in the population of immigrant workers. This data reflects growth in booming occupations that are predominantly staffed with immigrant workers, such as personal care aides (279 percent growth), as well as surprising growth in fields that continue to be dominated by native-born workers, such as business compliance officers (223 percent) and special education teachers (195 percent).

Ten Occupations with the Largest Growth in Immigrant Workers Since 2000

  • Crossing guards: 295 percent growth
  • Personal care aides: 279 percent
  • Business compliance officers: 223 percent
  • Drywall and ceiling tile installers: 201 percent
  • Special education teachers: 195 percent
  • Credit analysts: 176 percent
  • Other healthcare practicioners and technicians: 160 percent
  • Industrial truck operators: 156 percent
  • Appraisers and assessors of real estate: 147 percent
  • Police supervisors and detectives: 141 percent

This data brief presents a snapshot of the occupations with the largest numbers of immigrant workers across all five boroughs. The data also shows the kinds of jobs that employ immigrants who speak English less than very well. Overall, the 1.7 million LEP workers in New York City are concentrated in just nineteen occupations.

"Where Immigrant New Yorkers Go to Work" builds on a recent report by the Center for an Urban Future (CUF) and the Center for Popular Democracy, “A City of Immigrant Workers,” which explores the impact of immigrant workers on the city’s economy and calls for a coordinated strategy to include immigrants in the city’s workforce development system.

Index


Top Occupations by Share of Foreign-Born Workers

Medical aides—including nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides—is both the single largest occupation in the city and by far the largest employer of immigrants. More than 82,000 immigrants work as medical aides, accounting for 76 percent of all aides in the city. Other similarly lower-paid occupations, including housekeeping and food preparation, are also top employers of immigrants. But there are some higher-paid occupations where immigrants are well represented. Half of all computer programmers, 64 percent of all licensed practical and vocational nurses, and 70 percent of all medical and life scientists are immigrants. Immigrants represent the majority of workers in many of the fastest-growing occupations in the city, including construction laborers, personal care aides, and healthcare technicians.

The profile of occupations with very few immigrants is quite different from those where immigrants are more prevalent. Occupations with the lowest shares of immigrant workers are concentrated in the arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media industries, including editors, writers, actors, and public relations specialists. In the public sector, the city’s firefighters are 92 percent native-born, surpassing the police, who are 75 percent native-born.

Occupation Occupational Category Workers FB Workers % FB NB Workers % NB Change in FB Workers Since 2000
Firefighters Protective Service 5,485 428 8% 5,057 92% -5%
Television, Video, and Motion Picture Camera Operators and Editors Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 2,753 352 13% 2,401 87% -41%
Writers and Authors Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 14,821 2,013 14% 12,808 86% 9%
Broadcast and Sound Engineering Technicians and Radio Operators, and media and communication equipment workers, all other Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 3,590 489 14% 3,101 86% -37%
Public Relations Specialists Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 8,971 1,401 16% 7,570 84% 11%
First-Line Supervisors of Police and Detectives Protective Service 2,740 429 16% 2,311 84% 141%
Actors Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 3,778 605 16% 3,173 84% -10%
Lawyers, and judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers Legal 52,197 8,388 16% 43,809 84% 27%
Speech Language Pathologists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 2,971 479 16% 2,492 84% 12%
Agents and Business Managers of Artists, Performers, and Athletes Business Operations Specialists 4,486 731 16% 3,755 84% 40%
Advertising Sales Agents Sales and Related 9,627 1,572 16% 8,055 84% 31%
Private Detectives and Investigators Protective Service 2,113 353 17% 1,760 83% 7%
Producers and Directors Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 14,748 2,472 17% 12,276 83% 33%
Editors Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 16,132 2,722 17% 13,410 83% 9%
Bailiffs, Correctional Officers, and Jailers Protective Service 6,820 1,168 17% 5,652 83% -13%
Advertising and Promotions Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 4,641 808 17% 3,833 83% -4%
Meeting and Convention Planners Business Operations Specialists 2,660 465 17% 2,195 83% 134%
Budget Analysts Financial Specialists 1,450 264 18% 1,186 82% -13%
Psychologists Life, Physical, and Social Science 7,803 1,497 19% 6,306 81% 29%
Telemarketers Sales and Related 1,522 293 19% 1,229 81% -53%
Sales and Related Workers, All Other Sales and Related 6,164 1,213 20% 4,951 80% 27%
Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers Personal Care and Service 1,527 303 20% 1,224 80% -90%
Detectives and Criminal Investigators Protective Service 3,695 769 21% 2,926 79% 50%
Public Relations and Fundraising Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 1,996 422 21% 1,574 79% 39%
Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors Transportation and Material Moving 4,486 995 22% 3,491 78% 8%
Social and Community Service Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 12,030 2,685 22% 9,345 78% 21%
Recreation and Fitness Workers Personal Care and Service 8,985 2,065 23% 6,920 77% 81%
Archivists, Curators, and Museum Technicians Education, Training, and Library 2,495 585 23% 1,910 77% 12%
Education Administrators Management, Business, Science, and Arts 19,274 4,695 24% 14,579 76% 36%
Actuaries Computer and Mathematical 1,279 313 24% 966 76% -7%
Secondary School Teachers Education, Training, and Library 15,012 3,704 25% 11,308 75% 47%
Special Education Teachers Education, Training, and Library 5,267 1,303 25% 3,964 75% 195%
Police Officers Protective Service 16,057 3,995 25% 12,062 75% 41%
Elementary and Middle School Teachers Education, Training, and Library 59,891 15,118 25% 44,773 75% 6%
Court, Municipal, and License Clerks Office and Administrative Support 1,925 488 25% 1,437 75% 117%
Miscellaneous Legal Support Workers Legal 5,906 1,503 25% 4,403 75% 22%
Miscellaneous Entertainment Attendants and Related Workers Personal Care and Service 2,287 584 26% 1,703 74% -27%
Marketing and Sales Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 20,381 5,247 26% 15,134 74% -8%
Therapists, All Other Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 2,934 757 26% 2,177 74% 29%
Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters Transportation and Material Moving 1,371 355 26% 1,016 74% 96%
Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks Office and Administrative Support 3,517 925 26% 2,592 74% -30%
Subway, Streetcar, and Other Rail Transportation Workers Transportation and Material Moving 1,110 294 26% 816 74% 40%
Other Education, Training, and Library Workers Education, Training, and Library 2,117 563 27% 1,554 73% 85%
Industrial Production Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 1,911 513 27% 1,398 73% -64%
Paralegals and Legal Assistants Legal 14,808 3,991 27% 10,817 73% 37%
Administrative Services Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 2,636 712 27% 1,924 73% -8%
News Analysts, Reporters and Correspondents Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 6,538 1,767 27% 4,771 73% 15%
Sales Representatives, Services, All Other Sales and Related 10,875 2,973 27% 7,902 73% 5%
Librarians Education, Training, and Library 4,124 1,152 28% 2,972 72% -19%
Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents Sales and Related 28,172 7,887 28% 20,285 72% 5%
Secretaries and Administrative Assistants Office and Administrative Support 91,948 25,825 28% 66,123 72% -5%
Chief executives and legislators Management, Business, Science, and Arts 23,843 6,775 28% 17,068 72% -9%
Artists and Related Workers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 12,284 3,541 29% 8,743 71% 11%
Lifeguards and Other Protective Service Workers Protective Service 2,562 739 29% 1,823 71% 54%
Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks Office and Administrative Support 5,561 1,609 29% 3,952 71% 24%
Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping Office and Administrative Support 1,683 489 29% 1,194 71% -29%
Financial Analysts Financial Specialists 7,889 2,293 29% 5,596 71% 43%
Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products Business Operations Specialists 6,442 1,881 29% 4,561 71% 11%
Market and Survey Researchers Life, Physical, and Social Science 3,841 1,125 29% 2,716 71% 29%
Library Assistants, Clerical Office and Administrative Support 2,022 593 29% 1,429 71% -36%
Purchasing Agents, Except Wholesale, Retail, and Farm Products Business Operations Specialists 3,071 907 30% 2,164 70% 7%
Human Resources, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists Business Operations Specialists 17,906 5,294 30% 12,612 70% 31%
Other Teachers and Instructors Education, Training, and Library 21,582 6,394 30% 15,188 70% 54%
Host and Hostesses, Restaurant, Lounge, and Coffee Shop Food Preparation and Serving 3,223 961 30% 2,262 70% 10%
Insurance Underwriters Financial Specialists 1,771 538 30% 1,233 70% -7%
Counselors Community and Social Services 16,647 5,075 30% 11,572 70% 36%
Personal Financial Advisors Financial Specialists 13,717 4,183 30% 9,534 70% 72%
Elevator Installers and Repairers Construction and Extraction 1,751 537 31% 1,214 69% -17%
Dispatchers Office and Administrative Support 5,952 1,835 31% 4,117 69% 9%
Musicians, Singers, and Related Workers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 9,242 2,863 31% 6,379 69% 94%
Miscellaneous Social Scientists, Including Survey Researchers and Sociologists Life, Physical, and Social Science 1,545 484 31% 1,061 69% 125%
Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 3,640 1,148 32% 2,492 68% 138%
Interviewers, Except Eligibility and Loan Office and Administrative Support 3,846 1,215 32% 2,631 68% -23%
Purchasing Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 2,409 763 32% 1,646 68% 5%
Entertainers and Performers, Sports and Related Workers, All Other Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 1,775 563 32% 1,212 68% 60%
Preschool and Kindergarten Teachers Education, Training, and Library 8,230 2,611 32% 5,619 68% 17%
Supervisors, Protective Service Workers, All Other Protective Service 2,556 823 32% 1,733 68% -8%
Human Resources Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 6,909 2,238 32% 4,671 68% -40%
Postsecondary Teachers Education, Training, and Library 30,316 9,836 32% 20,480 68% 44%
General and Operations Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 16,011 5,196 32% 10,815 68% 9%
Financial Specialists, All Other Financial Specialists 2,911 952 33% 1,959 67% 24%
Miscellaneous office and administrative support workers including desktop publishers Office and Administrative Support 16,480 5,408 33% 11,072 67% 30%
Postal Service Clerks Office and Administrative Support 4,489 1,475 33% 3,014 67% -28%
Athletes, Coaches, Umpires, and Related Workers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 2,631 867 33% 1,764 67% 122%
Social Workers Community and Social Services 26,666 8,825 33% 17,841 67% 22%
Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 1,261 418 33% 843 67% 57%
Bartenders Food Preparation and Serving 10,658 3,572 34% 7,086 66% 61%
Designers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 40,513 13,601 34% 26,912 66% 14%
Management Analysts Business Operations Specialists 18,818 6,339 34% 12,479 66% 55%
Office Machine Operators, Except Computer Office and Administrative Support 1,302 439 34% 863 66% -50%
Other Business Operations Specialists Business Operations Specialists 9,969 3,377 34% 6,592 66% 39%
Miscellaneous Managers, Including Funeral Directors, Funeral Service Managers and Postmasters and Mail Superintendents Management, Business, Science, and Arts 61,379 20,850 34% 40,529 66% 46%
Locomotive Engineers and Operators Transportation and Material Moving 1,520 518 34% 1,002 66% 46%
Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service Office and Administrative Support 3,764 1,288 34% 2,476 66% -44%
Transportation Attendants Personal Care and Service 4,183 1,436 34% 2,747 66% -23%
First-Line Supervisors of Office and Administrative Support Workers Office and Administrative Support 32,097 11,048 34% 21,049 66% -15%
Telephone Operators Office and Administrative Support 1,487 515 35% 972 65% -21%
Occupational Therapists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 2,202 766 35% 1,436 65% 61%
Crossing Guards Protective Service 2,549 892 35% 1,657 65% 295%
File Clerks Office and Administrative Support 8,105 2,847 35% 5,258 65% 3%
Dental Hygienists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 1,500 527 35% 973 65% 27%
Models, Demonstrators, and Product Promoters Sales and Related 1,607 566 35% 1,041 65% 1%
Teacher Assistants Education, Training, and Library 28,360 9,998 35% 18,362 65% 33%
Loan Interviewers and Clerks Office and Administrative Support 1,036 366 35% 670 65% 92%
Claims Adjusters, Appraisers, Examiners, and Investigators Business Operations Specialists 3,502 1,246 36% 2,256 64% 16%
Insurance Sales Agents Sales and Related 6,321 2,261 36% 4,060 64% 4%
Religious Workers, All Other Community and Social Services 2,006 718 36% 1,288 64% -5%
Other Life, Physical, and Social Science Technicians Life, Physical, and Social Science 2,285 820 36% 1,465 64% -12%
Billing and Posting Clerks Office and Administrative Support 9,915 3,561 36% 6,354 64% -6%
Miscellaneous Community and Social Service Specialists Community and Social Services 8,333 3,009 36% 5,324 64% 50%
Real Estate Brokers and Sales Agents Sales and Related 19,700 7,114 36% 12,586 64% 47%
Receptionists and Information Clerks Office and Administrative Support 27,120 9,836 36% 17,284 64% 18%
Word Processors and Typists Office and Administrative Support 7,714 2,814 36% 4,900 64% 105%
Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts Computer and Mathematical 8,924 3,257 36% 5,667 64% -15%
Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate Financial Specialists 1,194 437 37% 757 63% 147%
Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters Architecture and Engineering 3,571 1,309 37% 2,262 63% -35%
Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators Production 1,515 559 37% 956 63% -46%
Financial Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 32,655 12,102 37% 20,553 63% 40%
Supervisors of Transportation and Material Moving Workers Transportation and Material Moving 5,190 1,924 37% 3,266 63% -7%
Announcers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 1,325 492 37% 833 63% 101%
Customer Service Representatives Office and Administrative Support 36,165 13,560 37% 22,605 63% 15%
Directors, Religious Activities and Education Community and Social Services 1,083 411 38% 672 62% 66%
Data Entry Keyers Office and Administrative Support 11,125 4,234 38% 6,891 62% -35%
Massage Therapists Healthcare Support 1,882 719 38% 1,163 62% 68%
Office Clerks, General Office and Administrative Support 39,126 14,984 38% 24,142 62% -15%
Computer Support Specialists Computer and Mathematical 8,271 3,171 38% 5,100 62% 38%
Photographers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 8,187 3,142 38% 5,045 62% 66%
Architects, Except Naval Architecture and Engineering 10,711 4,116 38% 6,595 62% 32%
Information and Record Clerks, All Other Office and Administrative Support 1,874 724 39% 1,150 61% -9%
Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing Sales and Related 21,827 8,444 39% 13,383 61% 1%
Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 2,918 1,130 39% 1,788 61% 20%
Network and Computer Systems Administrators Computer and Mathematical 4,108 1,595 39% 2,513 61% -16%
Postal Service Mail Sorters, Processors, and Processing Machine Operators Office and Administrative Support 2,426 950 39% 1,476 61% -12%
Computer Operators Office and Administrative Support 3,242 1,270 39% 1,972 61% -49%
Radio and Telecommunications Equipment Installers and Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 3,289 1,302 40% 1,987 60% -33%
Medical and Health Services Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 13,451 5,354 40% 8,097 60% 52%
Postal Service Mail Carriers Office and Administrative Support 6,679 2,665 40% 4,014 60% 15%
Bill and Account Collectors Office and Administrative Support 1,791 721 40% 1,070 60% -4%
First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 3,413 1,381 40% 2,032 60% 11%
Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 15,724 6,384 41% 9,340 59% 38%
Medical Records and Health Information Technicians Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 1,439 601 42% 838 58% -21%
Grounds Maintenance Workers Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 7,197 3,031 42% 4,166 58% 31%
Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents Financial Specialists 1,500 632 42% 868 58% 4%
Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs Office and Administrative Support 1,597 674 42% 923 58% -3%
Retail Salespersons Sales and Related 76,836 32,674 43% 44,162 57% 20%
Operations Research Analysts Computer and Mathematical 1,654 712 43% 942 57% -19%
First-Line Supervisors of Non-Retail Sales Sales and Related 21,939 9,461 43% 12,478 57% 22%
Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 5,782 2,507 43% 3,275 57% 16%
Computer and Information Systems Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 8,319 3,617 43% 4,702 57% 71%
Database Administrators Computer and Mathematical 1,733 762 44% 971 56% 23%
Aircraft Mechanics and Service Technicians Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 1,114 490 44% 624 56% -25%
Computer Scientists and Systems Analysts Computer and Mathematical 20,430 9,025 44% 11,405 56% 49%
Compliance Officers, Except Agriculture, Construction, Health and Safety, and Transportation Business Operations Specialists 4,980 2,200 44% 2,780 56% 223%
Credit Counselors and Loan Officers Financial Specialists 3,672 1,625 44% 2,047 56% 52%
Accountants and Auditors Financial Specialists 61,853 27,430 44% 34,423 56% 23%
Security Guards and Gaming Surveillance Officers Protective Service 44,354 19,864 45% 24,490 55% 38%
Stationary Engineers and Boiler Operators Production 2,398 1,076 45% 1,322 55% 2%
Physician Assistants Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 3,623 1,633 45% 1,990 55% 126%
Insurance Claims and Policy Processing Clerks Office and Administrative Support 3,538 1,598 45% 1,940 55% 125%
Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks Office and Administrative Support 5,389 2,435 45% 2,954 55% -21%
Physicians and Surgeons Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 27,786 12,597 45% 15,189 55% 9%
Personal Care and Service Workers, All Other Personal Care and Service 2,188 1,011 46% 1,177 54% 64%
Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks Office and Administrative Support 5,942 2,747 46% 3,195 54% -35%
Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks Office and Administrative Support 25,054 11,616 46% 13,438 54% -20%
Clergy Community and Social Services 5,783 2,699 47% 3,084 53% 47%
Lodging Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 2,399 1,122 47% 1,277 53% 45%
Bus Drivers Transportation and Material Moving 19,229 9,050 47% 10,179 53% 52%
Tour and Travel Guides Personal Care and Service 1,975 936 47% 1,039 53% 99%
Diagnostic Related Technologists and Technicians Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 3,638 1,727 47% 1,911 53% 9%
Software Developers, Applications and Systems Software Computer and Mathematical 10,273 4,909 48% 5,364 52% 12%
First-Line Supervisors of Retail Sales Workers Sales and Related 47,413 22,691 48% 24,722 52% -1%
Construction and Building Inspectors Construction and Extraction 1,546 740 48% 806 52% 73%
Physical Therapists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 4,044 1,976 49% 2,068 51% 51%
Baggage Porters, Bellhops, and Concierges Personal Care and Service 13,567 6,657 49% 6,910 51% 130%
First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers Production 6,281 3,086 49% 3,195 51% -54%
Bookbinders and Bindery Workers Production 3,681 1,810 49% 1,871 51% -30%
Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioner Support Technicians Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 5,739 2,840 49% 2,899 51% 111%
First-Line Supervisors of Personal Service Workers Personal Care and Service 4,078 2,027 50% 2,051 50% 70%
Stock Clerks and Order Fillers Office and Administrative Support 24,408 12,161 50% 12,247 50% 35%
Other Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 1,167 582 50% 585 50% 160%
Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 2,650 1,328 50% 1,322 50% 1%
Computer Programmers Computer and Mathematical 12,517 6,284 50% 6,233 50% -45%
Nonfarm Animal Caretakers Personal Care and Service 1,138 576 51% 562 49% 50%
Industrial Truck and Tractor Operators Transportation and Material Moving 1,948 991 51% 957 49% 156%
Tellers Office and Administrative Support 8,833 4,502 51% 4,331 49% 44%
Physical Scientists, All Other Life, Physical, and Social Science 2,917 1,497 51% 1,420 49% 2%
Medical Assistants and Other Healthcare Support Occupations, except dental assistants Healthcare Support 14,933 7,738 52% 7,195 48% 67%
Couriers and Messengers Office and Administrative Support 9,304 4,846 52% 4,458 48% 17%
Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 4,323 2,268 52% 2,055 48% 7%
Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 3,041 1,598 53% 1,443 47% 38%
Biological Scientists Life, Physical, and Social Science 1,207 635 53% 572 47% 7%
Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand Transportation and Material Moving 21,599 11,420 53% 10,179 47% 43%
Dental Assistants Healthcare Support 4,722 2,508 53% 2,214 47% 33%
Mechanical Engineers Architecture and Engineering 1,289 686 53% 603 47% -17%
Electrical and Electronics Engineers Architecture and Engineering 2,148 1,145 53% 1,003 47% 2%
Food Service Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 16,670 8,967 54% 7,703 46% 21%
Electricians Construction and Extraction 14,035 7,560 54% 6,475 46% 47%
Constructions Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 11,115 5,991 54% 5,124 46% 50%
Travel Agents Sales and Related 2,652 1,431 54% 1,221 46% -46%
First-Line Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers Food Preparation and Serving 7,933 4,328 55% 3,605 45% 6%
Dieticians and Nutritionists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 2,270 1,239 55% 1,031 45% -4%
Dentists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 3,218 1,768 55% 1,450 45% 59%
Drafters Architecture and Engineering 2,315 1,285 56% 1,030 44% -12%
Cashiers Sales and Related 63,803 35,689 56% 28,114 44% 33%
Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks Office and Administrative Support 2,713 1,519 56% 1,194 44% 118%
Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters Construction and Extraction 9,457 5,334 56% 4,123 44% 58%
First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers Construction and Extraction 8,639 4,909 57% 3,730 43% -1%
Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 7,335 4,169 57% 3,166 43% 9%
Tax Preparers Financial Specialists 1,601 913 57% 688 43% 30%
Transportation Inspectors Transportation and Material Moving 1,530 875 57% 655 43% 66%
Credit Analysts Financial Specialists 1,116 641 57% 475 43% 176%
Other Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers Including Wind Turbine Service Technicians, and Commercial Divers, and Signal and Track Switch Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 3,303 1,898 57% 1,405 43% -17%
Registered Nurses Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 45,836 26,423 58% 19,413 42% 13%
First-Line Supervisors of Housekeeping and Janitorial Workers Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 5,186 3,006 58% 2,180 42% 48%
Pharmacists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 4,142 2,463 59% 1,679 41% 8%
Civil Engineers Architecture and Engineering 4,490 2,673 60% 1,817 40% 29%
Maintenance and Repair Workers, General Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 6,046 3,609 60% 2,437 40% -18%
Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers Production 4,453 2,661 60% 1,792 40% -46%
Counter and Rental Clerks Sales and Related 2,691 1,620 60% 1,071 40% 67%
Waiters and Waitresses Food Preparation and Serving 42,746 25,976 61% 16,770 39% 43%
Miscellaneous Media and Communication Workers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 3,445 2,106 61% 1,339 39% 17%
Miscellaneous Health Technologists and Technicians Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 2,155 1,337 62% 818 38% 55%
Heavy Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Service Technicians and Mechanics Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 1,336 830 62% 506 38% -31%
Food Servers, Nonrestaurant Food Preparation and Serving 4,619 2,920 63% 1,699 37% 78%
Computer Hardware Engineers Architecture and Engineering 1,317 836 63% 481 37% 31%
Janitors and Building Cleaners Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 78,358 50,106 64% 28,252 36% 47%
Hazardous Materials Removal Workers Construction and Extraction 1,242 798 64% 444 36% -15%
Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 9,415 6,059 64% 3,356 36% 7%
Counter Attendant, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop Food Preparation and Serving 4,520 2,923 65% 1,597 35% 126%
Physical Therapist Assistants and Aides Healthcare Support 1,059 692 65% 367 35% 132%
Childcare Workers Personal Care and Service 43,775 28,684 66% 15,091 34% 51%
Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 10,406 6,833 66% 3,573 34% -26%
Production Workers, All Other Production 9,613 6,327 66% 3,286 34% -49%
Helpers, Construction Trades Construction and Extraction 1,548 1,022 66% 526 34% 74%
Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders Production 2,872 1,907 66% 965 34% -4%
Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers Transportation and Material Moving 42,681 28,352 66% 14,329 34% 19%
Painting Workers Production 1,277 849 66% 428 34% 3%
Industrial and Refractory Machinery Mechanics Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 1,692 1,148 68% 544 32% -44%
Carpenters Construction and Extraction 21,057 14,348 68% 6,709 32% 38%
Cleaners of Vehicles and Equipment Transportation and Material Moving 5,103 3,510 69% 1,593 31% 35%
Hairdressers, Hairstylists, and Cosmetologists Personal Care and Service 16,645 11,537 69% 5,108 31% 55%
Barbers Personal Care and Service 3,027 2,105 70% 922 30% 4%
Medical Scientists, and Life Scientists, All Other Life, Physical, and Social Science 4,026 2,817 70% 1,209 30% 46%
Medical, Dental, and Ophthalmic Laboratory Technicians Production 1,549 1,103 71% 446 29% -21%
Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 1,143 815 71% 328 29% -17%
Personal Care Aides Personal Care and Service 22,246 15,973 72% 6,273 28% 279%
Welding, Soldering, and Brazing Workers Production 3,566 2,567 72% 999 28% 6%
Automotive Body and Related Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 2,129 1,534 72% 595 28% 28%
Plasterers and Stucco Masons Construction and Extraction 1,634 1,181 72% 453 28% 138%
Automotive and Watercraft Service Attendants Transportation and Material Moving 1,207 873 72% 334 28% -25%
Carpet, Floor, and Tile Installers and Finishers Construction and Extraction 1,791 1,306 73% 485 27% -19%
Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food Food Preparation and Serving 4,795 3,531 74% 1,264 26% 66%
Packers and Packagers, Hand Transportation and Material Moving 6,581 4,850 74% 1,731 26% 8%
Machinists Production 1,427 1,080 76% 347 24% 4%
Food Preparation Workers Food Preparation and Serving 20,382 15,496 76% 4,886 24% 117%
Nursing, Psychiatric, and Home Health Aides Healthcare Support 107,741 82,233 76% 25,508 24% 47%
Miscellaneous Assemblers and Fabricators Production 4,613 3,554 77% 1,059 23% 7%
Helpers--Production Workers Production 1,919 1,479 77% 440 23% 7%
Construction Laborers Construction and Extraction 47,355 36,556 77% 10,799 23% 109%
Butchers and Other Meat, Poultry, and Fish Processing Workers Production 3,885 3,002 77% 883 23% 57%
Parking Lot Attendants Transportation and Material Moving 4,931 3,835 78% 1,096 22% 46%
Chefs and Head Cooks Food Preparation and Serving 19,331 15,064 78% 4,267 22% 60%
Door-to-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Related Workers Sales and Related 5,386 4,228 78% 1,158 22% 62%
Miscellaneous food preparation and serving related workers including dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers Food Preparation and Serving 10,059 7,956 79% 2,103 21% 94%
Cooks Food Preparation and Serving 36,068 28,737 80% 7,331 20% 31%
Bakers Production 4,540 3,635 80% 905 20% 10%
Jewelers and Precious Stone and Metal Workers Production 4,592 3,780 82% 812 18% -16%
Painters, Construction and Maintenance Construction and Extraction 13,111 10,803 82% 2,308 18% 52%
Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Workers Production 4,837 4,026 83% 811 17% 8%
Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 48,010 39,994 83% 8,016 17% 49%
Tailors, Dressmakers, and Sewers Production 4,448 3,776 85% 672 15% -32%
Brickmasons, Blockmasons, and Stonemasons Construction and Extraction 3,383 2,894 86% 489 14% 85%
Miscellaneous Personal Appearance Workers Personal Care and Service 10,154 8,766 86% 1,388 14% 94%
Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs Transportation and Material Moving 42,788 37,509 88% 5,279 12% 36%
Drywall Installers, Ceiling Tile Installers, and Tapers Construction and Extraction 1,990 1,808 91% 182 9% 201%
Dishwashers Food Preparation and Serving 7,304 6,700 92% 604 8% 105%
Sewing Machine Operators Production 10,652 9,935 93% 717 7% -60%
Pressers, Textile, Garment, and Related Materials Production 1,602 1,541 96% 61 4% -46%

Top Occupations by Share of LEP

Half of all workers in the city who speak English less than very well are concentrated in the top nineteen occupations on this list. These are disproportionately lower-income occupations. By far the largest concentrations of LEP workers are in manufacturing, food service, and construction occupations.

Occupation Occupational Category # Workers LEP Workers % LEP
Nursing, Psychiatric, and Home Health Aides Healthcare Support 107,741 41,312 38%
Janitors and Building Cleaners Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 78,358 35,390 45%
Construction Laborers Construction and Extraction 47,355 28,927 61%
Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 48,010 28,706 60%
Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs Transportation and Material Moving 42,788 24,267 57%
Cooks Food Preparation and Serving 36,068 22,633 63%
Cashiers Sales and Related 63,803 22,468 35%
Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers Transportation and Material Moving 42,681 19,745 46%
Waiters and Waitresses Food Preparation and Serving 42,746 16,369 38%
Retail Salespersons Sales and Related 76,836 15,900 21%
Childcare Workers Personal Care and Service 43,775 14,356 33%
Food Preparation Workers Food Preparation and Serving 20,382 13,165 65%
Chefs and Head Cooks Food Preparation and Serving 19,331 11,759 61%
First-Line Supervisors of Retail Sales Workers Sales and Related 47,413 11,033 23%
Sewing Machine Operators Production 10,652 9,201 86%
Personal Care Aides Personal Care and Service 22,246 9,186 41%
Stock Clerks and Order Fillers Office and Administrative Support 24,408 8,884 36%
Painters, Construction and Maintenance Construction and Extraction 13,111 8,266 63%
Carpenters Construction and Extraction 21,057 8,079 38%
Secretaries and Administrative Assistants Office and Administrative Support 91,948 8,012 9%
Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand Transportation and Material Moving 21,599 7,960 37%
Miscellaneous Personal Appearance Workers Personal Care and Service 10,154 7,066 70%
Hairdressers, Hairstylists, and Cosmetologists Personal Care and Service 16,645 7,003 42%
Security Guards and Gaming Surveillance Officers (2005-2009 definition) Protective Service 44,354 6,757 15%
Accountants and Auditors Financial Specialists 61,853 6,688 11%
Miscellaneous food preparation and serving related workers including dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers Food Preparation and Serving 10,059 6,254 62%
Miscellaneous Managers, Including Funeral Directors, Funeral Service Managers and Postmasters and Mail Superintendents Management, Business, Science, and Arts 61,379 6,082 10%
Dishwashers Food Preparation and Serving 7,304 5,856 80%
Registered Nurses (2005-2009 definition) Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 45,836 5,273 12%
Teacher Assistants Education, Training, and Library 28,360 4,955 17%
Customer Service Representatives Office and Administrative Support 36,165 4,949 14%
Designers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 40,513 4,836 12%
Production Workers, All Other (2000-2004 definition) Production 9,613 4,817 50%
Office Clerks, General Office and Administrative Support 39,126 4,750 12%
Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing Sales and Related 21,827 4,591 21%
Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks Office and Administrative Support 25,054 4,568 18%
Bus Drivers Transportation and Material Moving 19,229 4,394 23%
Food Service Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 16,670 4,248 25%
Packers and Packagers, Hand Transportation and Material Moving 6,581 4,070 62%
Receptionists and Information Clerks Office and Administrative Support 27,120 4,001 15%
Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 10,406 3,915 38%
Electricians (2005-2009 definition) Construction and Extraction 14,035 3,885 28%
Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters Construction and Extraction 9,457 3,508 37%
Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Workers Production 4,837 3,466 72%
First-Line Supervisors of Non-Retail Sales Sales and Related 21,939 3,429 16%
First-Line Supervisors of Office and Administrative Support Workers Office and Administrative Support 32,097 3,410 11%
Door-to-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Related Workers Sales and Related 5,386 3,308 61%
Elementary and Middle School Teachers Education, Training, and Library 59,891 3,273 5%
Jewelers and Precious Stone and Metal Workers Production 4,592 3,078 67%
Miscellaneous Assemblers and Fabricators Production 4,613 2,909 63%
Parking Lot Attendants Transportation and Material Moving 4,931 2,900 59%
Constructions Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 11,115 2,876 26%
Tailors, Dressmakers, and Sewers Production 4,448 2,871 65%
Medical Assistants and Other Healthcare Support Occupations, except dental assistants (2005-2009 definition) Healthcare Support 14,933 2,864 19%
Cleaners of Vehicles and Equipment Transportation and Material Moving 5,103 2,840 56%
Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 15,724 2,837 18%
Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food Food Preparation and Serving 4,795 2,763 58%
Baggage Porters, Bellhops, and Concierges Personal Care and Service 13,567 2,761 20%
Butchers and Other Meat, Poultry, and Fish Processing Workers Production 3,885 2,495 64%
First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers Construction and Extraction 8,639 2,456 28%
Bakers Production 4,540 2,425 53%
Couriers and Messengers Office and Administrative Support 9,304 2,410 26%
Counter Attendant, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop Food Preparation and Serving 4,520 2,369 52%
Other Teachers and Instructors Education, Training, and Library 21,582 2,297 11%
Real Estate Brokers and Sales Agents Sales and Related 19,700 2,230 11%
Maintenance and Repair Workers, General Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 6,046 2,228 37%
Financial Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 32,655 2,216 7%
Computer Programmers Computer and Mathematical 12,517 2,192 18%
Brickmasons, Blockmasons, and Stonemasons Construction and Extraction 3,383 2,144 63%
Grounds Maintenance Workers Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 7,197 2,114 29%
First-Line Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers Food Preparation and Serving 7,933 1,992 25%
Social Workers Community and Social Services 26,666 1,976 7%
First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers Production 6,281 1,937 31%
Computer Scientists and Systems Analysts (2005-2009 definition) Computer and Mathematical 20,430 1,885 9%
Physicians and Surgeons Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 27,786 1,711 6%
Postsecondary Teachers Education, Training, and Library 30,316 1,695 6%
Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders Production 2,872 1,694 59%
File Clerks Office and Administrative Support 8,105 1,626 20%
Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers Production 4,453 1,592 36%
Bartenders Food Preparation and Serving 10,658 1,567 15%
First-Line Supervisors of Housekeeping and Janitorial Workers Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 5,186 1,553 30%
Data Entry Keyers Office and Administrative Support 11,125 1,537 14%
General and Operations Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 16,011 1,493 9%
Pressers, Textile, Garment, and Related Materials Production 1,602 1,486 93%
Human Resources, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists (2005-2009 definition) Business Operations Specialists 17,906 1,471 8%
Barbers Personal Care and Service 3,027 1,460 48%
Welding, Soldering, and Brazing Workers Production 3,566 1,433 40%
Postal Service Mail Carriers Office and Administrative Support 6,679 1,394 21%
Billing and Posting Clerks Office and Administrative Support 9,915 1,380 14%
Miscellaneous office and administrative support workers including desktop publishers Office and Administrative Support 16,480 1,374 8%
Chief executives and legislators Management, Business, Science, and Arts 23,843 1,366 6%
Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers (2005-2009 definition) Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 4,323 1,345 31%
Tellers Office and Administrative Support 8,833 1,341 15%
Dental Assistants Healthcare Support 4,722 1,306 28%
Word Processors and Typists Office and Administrative Support 7,714 1,285 17%
First-Line Supervisors of Personal Service Workers Personal Care and Service 4,078 1,280 31%
Counselors Community and Social Services 16,647 1,267 8%
Counter and Rental Clerks Sales and Related 2,691 1,257 47%
Clergy Community and Social Services 5,783 1,234 21%
Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks Office and Administrative Support 5,942 1,222 21%
Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 9,415 1,217 13%
Bookbinders and Bindery Workers (2005-2009 definition) Production 3,681 1,213 33%
Drywall Installers, Ceiling Tile Installers, and Tapers Construction and Extraction 1,990 1,207 61%
Artists and Related Workers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 12,284 1,194 10%
Food Servers, Nonrestaurant Food Preparation and Serving 4,619 1,178 26%
Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 7,335 1,172 16%
Preschool and Kindergarten Teachers Education, Training, and Library 8,230 1,133 14%
Software Developers, Applications and Systems Software Computer and Mathematical 10,273 1,116 11%
Other Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers Including Wind Turbine Service Technicians, and Commercial Divers, and Signal and Track Switch Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 3,303 1,103 33%
Musicians, Singers, and Related Workers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 9,242 1,102 12%
Photographers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 8,187 1,094 13%
Helpers--Production Workers Production 1,919 1,062 55%
Postal Service Clerks Office and Administrative Support 4,489 1,053 23%
Lawyers, and judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers Legal 52,197 1,051 2%
Police Officers Protective Service 16,057 1,035 6%
Other Business Operations Specialists (2005-2009 definition) Business Operations Specialists 9,969 1,013 10%
Automotive Body and Related Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 2,129 993 47%
Computer Support Specialists (2005-2009 definition) Computer and Mathematical 8,271 979 12%
Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents Sales and Related 28,172 976 3%
Sales Representatives, Services, All Other Sales and Related 10,875 967 9%
Insurance Sales Agents Sales and Related 6,321 926 15%
Marketing and Sales Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 20,381 912 4%
Medical and Health Services Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 13,451 899 7%
Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors Transportation and Material Moving 4,486 887 20%
Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioner Support Technicians (2005-2009 definition) Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 5,739 875 15%
Carpet, Floor, and Tile Installers and Finishers Construction and Extraction 1,791 855 48%
Pharmacists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 4,142 854 21%
Secondary School Teachers Education, Training, and Library 15,012 853 6%
Education Administrators Management, Business, Science, and Arts 19,274 841 4%
Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 5,782 838 14%
Editors Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 16,132 825 5%
Paralegals and Legal Assistants (2005-2009 definition) Legal 14,808 823 6%
Medical Scientists, and Life Scientists, All Other Life, Physical, and Social Science 4,026 811 20%
Industrial and Refractory Machinery Mechanics Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 1,692 807 48%
Medical, Dental, and Ophthalmic Laboratory Technicians Production 1,549 797 51%
Civil Engineers Architecture and Engineering 4,490 795 18%
Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products Business Operations Specialists 6,442 795 12%
Miscellaneous Community and Social Service Specialists (2005-2009 definition) Community and Social Services 8,333 781 9%
Management Analysts Business Operations Specialists 18,818 775 4%
Plasterers and Stucco Masons Construction and Extraction 1,634 755 46%
Industrial Truck and Tractor Operators Transportation and Material Moving 1,948 737 38%
Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks Office and Administrative Support 5,389 713 13%
Dispatchers Office and Administrative Support 5,952 710 12%
Postal Service Mail Sorters, Processors, and Processing Machine Operators Office and Administrative Support 2,426 707 29%
Helpers, Construction Trades Construction and Extraction 1,548 706 46%
Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 2,650 703 27%
Computer and Information Systems Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 8,319 693 8%
Painting Workers Production 1,277 692 54%
Correspondent clerks and order clerks Office and Administrative Support 2,519 682 27%
Architects, Except Naval Architecture and Engineering 10,711 679 6%
Writers and Authors Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 14,821 676 5%
Roofers (2005-2009 definition) Construction and Extraction 1,586 647 41%
Recreation and Fitness Workers Personal Care and Service 8,985 637 7%
Personal Financial Advisors Financial Specialists 13,717 627 5%
Drafters Architecture and Engineering 2,315 608 26%
Hazardous Materials Removal Workers Construction and Extraction 1,242 599 48%
Diagnostic Related Technologists and Technicians Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 3,638 598 16%
Miscellaneous textile, apparel, and furnishings workers except upholsterers Production 1,411 592 42%
Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service Office and Administrative Support 3,764 589 16%
Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters Architecture and Engineering 3,571 585 16%
Miscellaneous Health Technologists and Technicians (2005-2009 definition) Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 2,155 574 27%
Social and Community Service Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 12,030 574 5%
Supervisors of Transportation and Material Moving Workers Transportation and Material Moving 5,190 572 11%
Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks Office and Administrative Support 2,713 564 21%
Advertising Sales Agents Sales and Related 9,627 562 6%
Miscellaneous metal workers and plastic workers including milling and planing machine setters, and multiple machine tool setters, and lay-out workers Production 1,320 561 43%
Heavy Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Service Technicians and Mechanics Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 1,336 561 42%
Automotive and Watercraft Service Attendants Transportation and Material Moving 1,207 553 46%
Human Resources Managers (2005-2009 definition) Management, Business, Science, and Arts 6,909 547 8%
Physical Therapists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 4,044 541 13%
Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts (2005-2009 definition) Computer and Mathematical 8,924 537 6%
Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 1,143 534 47%
Host and Hostesses, Restaurant, Lounge, and Coffee Shop Food Preparation and Serving 3,223 527 16%
Sales and Related Workers, All Other (2005-2009 definition) Sales and Related 6,164 517 8%
Lifeguards and Other Protective Service Workers (2005-2009 definition) Protective Service 2,562 511 20%
Personal Care and Service Workers, All Other Personal Care and Service 2,188 502 23%
Massage Therapists Healthcare Support 1,882 500 27%
Radio and Telecommunications Equipment Installers and Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 3,289 492 15%
Computer Operators Office and Administrative Support 3,242 491 15%
Transportation Attendants Personal Care and Service 4,183 482 12%
Physical Therapist Assistants and Aides Healthcare Support 1,059 478 45%
Network and Computer Systems Administrators (2005-2009 definition) Computer and Mathematical 4,108 478 12%
Crossing Guards Protective Service 2,549 472 19%
News Analysts, Reporters and Correspondents Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 6,538 453 7%
Bailiffs, Correctional Officers, and Jailers Protective Service 6,820 443 6%
Travel Agents Sales and Related 2,652 441 17%
Physical Scientists, All Other Life, Physical, and Social Science 2,917 440 15%
Physician Assistants Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 3,623 440 12%
Insurance Claims and Policy Processing Clerks Office and Administrative Support 3,538 436 12%
Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks Office and Administrative Support 5,561 436 8%
Dentists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 3,218 434 13%
First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 3,413 432 13%
Machinists Production 1,427 424 30%
Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 3,041 423 14%
Miscellaneous material moving workers including shuttle car operators, and tank car, truck, and ship loaders Transportation and Material Moving 1,507 421 28%
Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 2,918 413 14%
Database Administrators Computer and Mathematical 1,733 405 23%
Transportation Inspectors Transportation and Material Moving 1,530 396 26%
Lodging Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 2,399 385 16%
Athletes, Coaches, Umpires, and Related Workers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 2,631 382 15%
Producers and Directors Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 14,748 382 3%
Electrical and Electronics Engineers Architecture and Engineering 2,148 379 18%
Stationary Engineers and Boiler Operators Production 2,398 378 16%
Miscellaneous Entertainment Attendants and Related Workers Personal Care and Service 2,287 371 16%
Miscellaneous Media and Communication Workers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 3,445 358 10%
Miscellaneous engineeers including nuclear engineers Architecture and Engineering 2,876 344 12%
Religious Workers, All Other Community and Social Services 2,006 338 17%
Nonfarm Animal Caretakers Personal Care and Service 1,138 333 29%
Construction equipment operators except paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators Construction and Extraction 1,084 316 29%
Credit Counselors and Loan Officers Financial Specialists 3,672 316 9%
Claims Adjusters, Appraisers, Examiners, and Investigators Business Operations Specialists 3,502 314 9%
Tour and Travel Guides Personal Care and Service 1,975 310 16%
Directors, Religious Activities and Education Community and Social Services 1,083 304 28%
Psychologists Life, Physical, and Social Science 7,803 301 4%
Bill and Account Collectors Office and Administrative Support 1,791 294 16%
Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks Office and Administrative Support 3,517 287 8%
Agents and Business Managers of Artists, Performers, and Athletes Business Operations Specialists 4,486 286 6%
Financial Analysts Financial Specialists 7,889 284 4%
Computer Hardware Engineers Architecture and Engineering 1,317 278 21%
Information and Record Clerks, All Other Office and Administrative Support 1,874 270 14%
Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 3,640 266 7%
Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs Office and Administrative Support 1,597 261 16%
Interviewers, Except Eligibility and Loan Office and Administrative Support 3,846 258 7%
Industrial Production Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 1,911 255 13%
Compliance Officers, Except Agriculture, Construction, Health and Safety, and Transportation (2005-2009 definition) Business Operations Specialists 4,980 252 5%
Mechanical Engineers Architecture and Engineering 1,289 236 18%
Library Assistants, Clerical Office and Administrative Support 2,022 234 12%
Construction and Building Inspectors Construction and Extraction 1,546 230 15%
Supervisors, Protective Service Workers, All Other Protective Service 2,556 223 9%
Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate Financial Specialists 1,194 221 19%
Tax Preparers Financial Specialists 1,601 221 14%
Detectives and Criminal Investigators Protective Service 3,695 208 6%
Actors Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 3,778 207 5%
Purchasing Agents, Except Wholesale, Retail, and Farm Products Business Operations Specialists 3,071 202 7%
Structural Iron and Steel Workers Construction and Extraction 1,028 198 19%
Biological Scientists Life, Physical, and Social Science 1,207 196 16%
Miscellaneous Legal Support Workers (2005-2009 definition) Legal 5,906 188 3%
Dental Hygienists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 1,500 183 12%
Market and Survey Researchers Life, Physical, and Social Science 3,841 180 5%
Television, Video, and Motion Picture Camera Operators and Editors Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 2,753 178 6%
Financial Specialists, All Other Financial Specialists 2,911 177 6%
Other Life, Physical, and Social Science Technicians (2005-2009 definition) Life, Physical, and Social Science 2,285 175 8%
Elevator Installers and Repairers Construction and Extraction 1,751 174 10%
Administrative Services Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 2,636 172 7%
Office Machine Operators, Except Computer Office and Administrative Support 1,302 169 13%
Special Education Teachers Education, Training, and Library 5,267 168 3%
Librarians Education, Training, and Library 4,124 166 4%
Dieticians and Nutritionists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 2,270 164 7%
Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators Production 1,515 152 10%
Entertainers and Performers, Sports and Related Workers, All Other Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 1,775 152 9%
Firefighters Protective Service 5,485 151 3%
Public Relations Specialists (2005-2009 definition) Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 8,971 151 2%
Advertising and Promotions Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 4,641 143 3%
Meeting and Convention Planners (2005-2009 definition) Business Operations Specialists 2,660 140 5%
Aircraft Mechanics and Service Technicians Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 1,114 136 12%
Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping Office and Administrative Support 1,683 135 8%
Medical Records and Health Information Technicians Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 1,439 133 9%
Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers Personal Care and Service 1,527 133 9%
Other Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 1,167 131 11%
Locomotive Engineers and Operators Transportation and Material Moving 1,520 127 8%
Announcers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 1,325 119 9%
Telephone Operators Office and Administrative Support 1,487 115 8%
Operations Research Analysts Computer and Mathematical 1,654 107 6%
Budget Analysts Financial Specialists 1,450 106 7%
Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 1,261 105 8%
Public Relations and Fundraising Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 1,996 104 5%
Telemarketers Sales and Related 1,522 103 7%
Models, Demonstrators, and Product Promoters Sales and Related 1,607 101 6%
Broadcast and Sound Engineering Technicians and Radio Operators, and media and communication equipment workers, all other Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 3,590 96 3%
Private Detectives and Investigators Protective Service 2,113 94 4%
Court, Municipal, and License Clerks Office and Administrative Support 1,925 93 5%
Other Education, Training, and Library Workers Education, Training, and Library 2,117 93 4%
Occupational Therapists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 2,202 89 4%
Insurance Underwriters Financial Specialists 1,771 88 5%
First-Line Supervisors of Police and Detectives Protective Service 2,740 88 3%
Miscellaneous Social Scientists, Including Survey Researchers and Sociologists Life, Physical, and Social Science 1,545 74 5%
Actuaries Computer and Mathematical 1,279 72 6%
Subway, Streetcar, and Other Rail Transportation Workers Transportation and Material Moving 1,110 71 6%
Therapists, All Other (2005-2009 definition) Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 2,934 70 2%
Purchasing Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 2,409 60 2%
Loan Interviewers and Clerks Office and Administrative Support 1,036 56 5%
Speech Language Pathologists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 2,971 53 2%
Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents Financial Specialists 1,500 46 3%
Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters Transportation and Material Moving 1,371 41 3%
Archivists, Curators, and Museum Technicians Education, Training, and Library 2,495 19 1%
Credit Analysts Financial Specialists 1,116 16 1%

Top 10 Occupations in Each Borough by Number of Foreign-Born Workers

Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides are the single largest occupation for immigrants living in each of the five boroughs. More than half of all immigrant aides in the city live in Brooklyn, with another quarter living in Queens. Unsurprisingly, immigrants working in higher-paid occupations—such as physicians and surgeons, securities agents, and lawyers—tend to live in Manhattan.

Occupation Borough Occupational Category Workers in NYC Workers Living in Boro FB Workers Living in Boro % FB NYC % FB Boro
Nursing, Psychiatric, and Home Health Aides Bronx Healthcare Support 107,741 11,392 8,344 76% 73%
Janitors and Building Cleaners Bronx Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 78,358 11,250 6,804 64% 60%
Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners Bronx Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 48,010 7,609 6,287 83% 83%
Cooks Bronx Food Preparation and Serving 36,068 4,703 3,803 80% 81%
Construction Laborers Bronx Construction and Extraction 47,355 4,787 3,726 77% 78%
Retail Salespersons Bronx Sales and Related 76,836 7,336 3,305 43% 45%
Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers Bronx Transportation and Material Moving 42,681 4,643 3,227 66% 70%
Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs Bronx Transportation and Material Moving 42,788 3,962 3,154 88% 80%
Cashiers Bronx Sales and Related 63,803 6,792 2,970 56% 44%
Security Guards and Gaming Surveillance Officers Bronx Protective Service 44,354 7,036 2,665 45% 38%
Nursing, Psychiatric, and Home Health Aides Brooklyn Healthcare Support 107,741 55,325 43,578 76% 79%
Janitors and Building Cleaners Brooklyn Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 78,358 26,471 15,290 64% 58%
Construction Laborers Brooklyn Construction and Extraction 47,355 18,191 14,643 77% 80%
Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners Brooklyn Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 48,010 15,026 12,392 83% 82%
Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs Brooklyn Transportation and Material Moving 42,788 13,650 12,111 88% 89%
Retail Salespersons Brooklyn Sales and Related 76,836 26,662 11,184 43% 42%
Childcare Workers Brooklyn Personal Care and Service 43,775 17,268 11,132 66% 64%
Cashiers Brooklyn Sales and Related 63,803 20,556 11,058 56% 54%
Registered Nurses Brooklyn Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 45,836 16,196 10,370 58% 64%
Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers Brooklyn Transportation and Material Moving 42,681 14,569 9,822 66% 67%
Nursing, Psychiatric, and Home Health Aides Manhattan Healthcare Support 107,741 11,008 7,572 76% 69%
Miscellaneous Managers, Including Funeral Directors, Funeral Service Managers and Postmasters and Mail Superintendents Manhattan Management, Business, Science, and Arts 61,379 24,339 6,766 34% 28%
Janitors and Building Cleaners Manhattan Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 78,358 10,958 6,755 64% 62%
Accountants and Auditors Manhattan Financial Specialists 61,853 20,353 5,925 44% 29%
Lawyers, and judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers Manhattan Legal 52,197 32,178 5,106 16% 16%
Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents Manhattan Sales and Related 28,172 19,999 4,958 28% 25%
Physicians and Surgeons Manhattan Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 27,786 14,622 4,829 45% 33%
Postsecondary Teachers Manhattan Education, Training, and Library 30,316 15,383 4,631 32% 30%
Designers Manhattan Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 40,513 17,246 4,622 34% 27%
Waiters and Waitresses Manhattan Food Preparation and Serving 42,746 10,054 4,618 61% 46%
Nursing, Psychiatric, and Home Health Aides Queens Healthcare Support 107,741 25,237 20,011 76% 79%
Janitors and Building Cleaners Queens Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 78,358 25,740 19,111 64% 74%
Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs Queens Transportation and Material Moving 42,788 18,902 17,021 88% 90%
Cashiers Queens Sales and Related 63,803 23,296 16,354 56% 70%
Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners Queens Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 48,010 17,434 15,603 83% 89%
Construction Laborers Queens Construction and Extraction 47,355 17,754 14,214 77% 80%
Retail Salespersons Queens Sales and Related 76,836 22,643 12,370 43% 55%
Waiters and Waitresses Queens Food Preparation and Serving 42,746 15,734 11,722 61% 75%
Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers Queens Transportation and Material Moving 42,681 16,260 11,253 66% 69%
Childcare Workers Queens Personal Care and Service 43,775 14,824 11,059 66% 75%
Nursing, Psychiatric, and Home Health Aides Staten Island Healthcare Support 107,741 4,779 2,728 76% 57%
Janitors and Building Cleaners Staten Island Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 78,358 3,939 2,146 64% 54%
Construction Laborers Staten Island Construction and Extraction 47,355 3,148 1,819 77% 58%
Registered Nurses Staten Island Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 45,836 4,736 1,725 58% 36%
Accountants and Auditors Staten Island Financial Specialists 61,853 3,779 1,283 44% 34%
Retail Salespersons Staten Island Sales and Related 76,836 4,446 1,224 43% 28%
Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners Staten Island Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 48,010 2,069 1,146 83% 55%
Secretaries and Administrative Assistants Staten Island Office and Administrative Support 91,948 7,919 1,126 28% 14%
First-Line Supervisors of Retail Sales Workers Staten Island Sales and Related 47,413 3,349 1,123 48% 34%
Cashiers Staten Island Sales and Related 63,803 4,104 1,057 56% 26%

Occupations with the Largest Education Gaps Between Native- and Foreign-Born Workers

The profiles of workers within each occupation can vary widely. This analysis finds stark discrepancies in the average educational achievement levels of native- versus foreign-born workers within several occupations. Topping the list are sewing machine operators. Ninety-three percent of all sewing machine operators in the city are foreign-born, and the average immigrant sewing machine operator has less than a high school degree. More than two-thirds of foreign-born sewing machine operators did not complete high school, and another 25 percent only have a high school diploma. In contrast, 22 percent of native-born workers in this profession have at least a bachelor’s degree, perhaps suggesting that foreign-born and native-born sewing machine operators are unlikely to be working for the same kinds of employers or earning the same wages.

Disparity Rank Occupation Occupational Category Workers % FB NB <HS% FB <HS% NB HS% FB HS% NB Coll<1 yr.% FB Coll<1yr% NB Coll>1yr% FB Coll>1yr% NB Assoc% FB Assoc% NB BA+% FB BA+%
1 Sewing Machine Operators Production 10,652 93% 19% 67% 44% 25% 0% 1% 11% 3% 4% 1% 22% 2%
2 Tailors, Dressmakers, and Sewers Production 4,448 85% 4% 50% 16% 26% 4% 1% 38% 6% 2% 7% 36% 10%
3 Plasterers and Stucco Masons Construction and Extraction 1,634 72% 8% 43% 0% 34% 9% 6% 57% 10% 0% 5% 26% 3%
4 Painting Workers Production 1,277 66% 0% 35% 56% 56% 1% 0% 15% 9% 0% 0% 27% 0%
5 Chefs and Head Cooks Food Preparation and Serving 19,331 78% 9% 47% 35% 34% 4% 1% 16% 5% 10% 5% 26% 8%
6 Dishwashers Food Preparation and Serving 7,304 92% 27% 68% 24% 25% 17% 0% 25% 3% 0% 1% 6% 2%
7 Personal Care and Service Workers, All Other Personal Care and Service 2,188 46% 3% 31% 28% 15% 4% 9% 10% 28% 11% 4% 45% 13%
8 Production Workers, All Other Production 9,613 66% 20% 52% 37% 29% 4% 2% 8% 8% 6% 4% 24% 5%
9 Refuse and Recyclable Material Collectors Transportation and Material Moving 4,486 22% 9% 57% 47% 22% 5% 3% 22% 6% 13% 6% 4% 7%
10 Helpers, Construction Trades Construction and Extraction 1,548 66% 32% 51% 22% 40% 4% 0% 23% 0% 10% 5% 9% 3%
11 Bookbinders and Bindery Workers Production 3,681 49% 18% 42% 27% 29% 6% 0% 13% 4% 15% 13% 21% 12%
12 Bartenders Food Preparation and Serving 10,658 34% 3% 16% 12% 36% 2% 3% 23% 15% 13% 12% 47% 19%
13 Sales and Related Workers, All Other Sales and Related 6,164 20% 1% 19% 9% 19% 5% 7% 9% 8% 2% 6% 74% 41%
14 Miscellaneous textile, apparel, and furnishings workers except upholsterers Production 1,411 66% 4% 26% 22% 34% 4% 7% 24% 11% 11% 11% 36% 10%
15 Food Preparation Workers Food Preparation and Serving 20,382 76% 31% 54% 22% 31% 10% 1% 18% 6% 5% 3% 14% 6%
16 Miscellaneous Personal Appearance Workers Personal Care and Service 10,154 86% 16% 37% 29% 38% 1% 2% 19% 5% 7% 4% 28% 14%
17 Waiters and Waitresses Food Preparation and Serving 42,746 61% 8% 26% 13% 34% 6% 4% 27% 14% 6% 7% 40% 15%
18 Correspondent clerks and order clerks Office and Administrative Support 2,519 45% 7% 20% 34% 42% 2% 8% 17% 16% 6% 5% 34% 9%
19 Private Detectives and Investigators Protective Service 2,113 17% 0% 10% 12% 38% 3% 0% 19% 6% 5% 12% 61% 34%
20 Insurance Underwriters Financial Specialists 1,771 30% 1% 6% 10% 27% 6% 8% 4% 15% 8% 10% 72% 33%
21 Cleaners of Vehicles and Equipment Transportation and Material Moving 5,103 69% 28% 54% 53% 35% 1% 1% 10% 2% 5% 3% 4% 4%
22 Construction Laborers Construction and Extraction 47,355 77% 19% 48% 43% 35% 5% 2% 17% 5% 6% 4% 10% 6%
23 Miscellaneous Assemblers and Fabricators Production 4,613 77% 27% 46% 34% 36% 0% 3% 14% 5% 5% 0% 20% 9%
24 Cooks Food Preparation and Serving 36,068 80% 22% 49% 41% 35% 8% 1% 15% 6% 6% 2% 8% 7%
25 Television, Video, and Motion Picture Camera Operators and Editors Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 2,753 13% 4% 16% 4% 3% 1% 9% 14% 35% 3% 0% 74% 37%
26 Bakers Production 4,540 80% 25% 40% 28% 41% 0% 1% 19% 4% 8% 5% 20% 9%
27 Door-to-Door Sales Workers, News and Street Vendors, and Related Workers Sales and Related 5,386 78% 25% 44% 28% 23% 6% 3% 19% 13% 6% 5% 16% 13%
28 Counter and Rental Clerks Sales and Related 2,691 60% 14% 26% 44% 33% 3% 10% 15% 17% 7% 2% 16% 12%
29 Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 2,650 50% 14% 16% 27% 44% 4% 4% 13% 13% 5% 7% 37% 17%
30 Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 1,143 71% 0% 12% 2% 37% 6% 5% 38% 4% 8% 10% 46% 32%
31 Sales Representatives, Wholesale and Manufacturing Sales and Related 21,827 39% 5% 15% 13% 30% 3% 4% 15% 11% 5% 4% 58% 35%
32 Packaging and Filling Machine Operators and Tenders Production 2,872 66% 28% 54% 30% 24% 17% 0% 15% 8% 0% 2% 10% 11%
33 Butchers and Other Meat, Poultry, and Fish Processing Workers Production 3,885 77% 23% 53% 59% 28% 2% 2% 5% 6% 8% 4% 3% 8%
34 Massage Therapists Healthcare Support 1,882 38% 0% 0% 2% 26% 6% 5% 14% 16% 19% 30% 60% 24%
35 Automotive Body and Related Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 2,129 72% 29% 52% 58% 37% 3% 2% 2% 3% 9% 0% 0% 5%
36 Welding, Soldering, and Brazing Workers Production 3,566 72% 13% 43% 56% 43% 14% 1% 17% 10% 1% 2% 0% 2%
37 Grounds Maintenance Workers Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 7,197 42% 29% 52% 41% 38% 8% 1% 10% 6% 6% 0% 7% 3%
38 Miscellaneous Entertainment Attendants and Related Workers Personal Care and Service 2,287 26% 6% 26% 19% 24% 5% 0% 19% 16% 21% 10% 29% 24%
39 Counter Attendant, Cafeteria, Food Concession, and Coffee Shop Food Preparation and Serving 4,520 65% 28% 49% 36% 30% 5% 3% 16% 7% 9% 5% 6% 6%
40 Host and Hostesses, Restaurant, Lounge, and Coffee Shop Food Preparation and Serving 3,223 30% 3% 14% 22% 21% 8% 4% 22% 37% 4% 9% 41% 17%
41 Helpers--Production Workers Production 1,919 77% 34% 54% 42% 15% 8% 7% 10% 14% 0% 7% 7% 3%
42 Announcers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 1,325 37% 0% 0% 6% 34% 9% 8% 17% 10% 2% 20% 67% 29%
43 Models, Demonstrators, and Product Promoters Sales and Related 1,607 35% 12% 9% 7% 41% 2% 4% 28% 23% 3% 4% 48% 20%
44 Carpenters Construction and Extraction 21,057 68% 12% 31% 43% 43% 6% 5% 22% 8% 4% 4% 13% 8%
45 Laborers and Freight, Stock, and Material Movers, Hand Transportation and Material Moving 21,599 53% 25% 41% 42% 38% 5% 2% 15% 7% 5% 3% 9% 8%
46 Jewelers and Precious Stone and Metal Workers Production 4,592 82% 13% 30% 46% 38% 2% 3% 10% 12% 12% 8% 17% 9%
47 Personal Care Aides Personal Care and Service 22,246 72% 18% 38% 35% 35% 4% 2% 25% 8% 7% 6% 10% 11%
48 Brickmasons, Blockmasons, and Stonemasons Construction and Extraction 3,383 86% 19% 43% 60% 34% 5% 1% 9% 12% 7% 7% 0% 3%
49 Industrial Production Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 1,911 27% 4% 17% 8% 13% 4% 0% 11% 24% 4% 0% 68% 46%
50 Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 15,724 41% 8% 12% 20% 33% 4% 5% 16% 12% 4% 3% 47% 35%
51 Painters, Construction and Maintenance Construction and Extraction 13,111 82% 19% 43% 46% 36% 17% 1% 5% 8% 6% 3% 7% 7%
52 Carpet, Floor, and Tile Installers and Finishers Construction and Extraction 1,791 73% 37% 45% 27% 27% 3% 0% 7% 12% 0% 7% 26% 8%
53 Religious Workers, All Other Community and Social Services 2,006 36% 6% 5% 15% 20% 5% 15% 27% 17% 1% 18% 45% 26%
54 Machinists Production 1,427 76% 7% 20% 13% 44% 16% 1% 28% 17% 29% 1% 7% 17%
55 Constructions Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 11,115 54% 5% 16% 21% 25% 4% 2% 13% 9% 3% 7% 54% 40%
56 Production, Planning, and Expediting Clerks Office and Administrative Support 5,561 29% 1% 7% 6% 12% 3% 6% 11% 10% 3% 11% 75% 54%
57 Inspectors, Testers, Sorters, Samplers, and Weighers Production 4,453 60% 8% 20% 27% 35% 7% 6% 21% 12% 9% 8% 27% 19%
58 Entertainers and Performers, Sports and Related Workers, All Other Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 1,775 32% 5% 11% 17% 17% 2% 18% 12% 10% 6% 6% 58% 38%
59 Food Service Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 16,670 54% 3% 15% 18% 26% 8% 5% 20% 17% 10% 5% 41% 31%
60 Heavy Vehicle and Mobile Equipment Service Technicians and Mechanics Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 1,336 62% 9% 29% 42% 42% 5% 1% 34% 11% 10% 10% 0% 7%
61 First-Line Supervisors of Production and Operating Workers Production 6,281 49% 8% 23% 22% 28% 6% 2% 21% 15% 8% 8% 33% 24%
62 First-Line Supervisors of Retail Sales Workers Sales and Related 47,413 48% 5% 16% 22% 32% 6% 3% 19% 14% 10% 6% 38% 29%
63 Retail Salespersons Sales and Related 76,836 43% 8% 20% 25% 34% 7% 4% 26% 16% 9% 8% 26% 18%
64 Combined Food Preparation and Serving Workers, Including Fast Food Food Preparation and Serving 4,795 74% 27% 38% 37% 41% 4% 1% 19% 9% 8% 4% 5% 7%
65 Pressers, Textile, Garment, and Related Materials Production 1,602 96% 100% 72% 0% 16% 0% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 0% 9%
66 Stock Clerks and Order Fillers Office and Administrative Support 24,408 50% 18% 34% 41% 35% 7% 3% 18% 11% 7% 6% 9% 11%
67 First-Line Supervisors of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers Construction and Extraction 8,639 57% 13% 24% 38% 40% 7% 7% 15% 12% 8% 2% 19% 14%
68 Packers and Packagers, Hand Transportation and Material Moving 6,581 74% 42% 49% 23% 41% 6% 1% 14% 5% 8% 2% 7% 1%
69 Actors Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 3,778 16% 1% 7% 7% 14% 4% 3% 16% 20% 3% 5% 69% 51%
70 Human Resources, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists Business Operations Specialists 17,906 30% 1% 6% 7% 15% 2% 2% 12% 10% 7% 8% 73% 59%
71 Real Estate Brokers and Sales Agents Sales and Related 19,700 36% 0% 8% 12% 18% 4% 2% 15% 16% 6% 6% 63% 49%
72 Ushers, Lobby Attendants, and Ticket Takers Personal Care and Service 1,527 20% 26% 6% 17% 61% 1% 0% 23% 18% 3% 6% 30% 9%
73 Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers Transportation and Material Moving 42,681 66% 23% 37% 45% 36% 6% 3% 13% 12% 7% 5% 6% 8%
74 Hairdressers, Hairstylists, and Cosmetologists Personal Care and Service 16,645 69% 5% 26% 48% 39% 7% 1% 19% 16% 9% 7% 11% 11%
75 Automotive Service Technicians and Mechanics Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 10,406 66% 18% 35% 56% 43% 4% 3% 13% 7% 6% 7% 5% 4%
76 Pipelayers, Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters Construction and Extraction 9,457 56% 10% 40% 57% 29% 6% 4% 18% 15% 6% 5% 4% 7%
77 Nonfarm Animal Caretakers Personal Care and Service 1,138 51% 13% 22% 34% 38% 0% 0% 29% 17% 10% 0% 14% 23%
78 Miscellaneous Health Technologists and Technicians Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 2,155 62% 0% 3% 20% 21% 2% 5% 9% 21% 14% 12% 55% 38%
79 Therapists, All Other Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 2,934 26% 5% 15% 1% 0% 0% 0% 6% 4% 6% 5% 82% 76%
80 Cashiers Sales and Related 63,803 56% 21% 31% 30% 33% 8% 4% 25% 16% 5% 6% 11% 10%
81 Childcare Workers Personal Care and Service 43,775 66% 25% 30% 31% 38% 5% 3% 17% 13% 8% 5% 15% 12%
82 Construction equipment operators except paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators Construction and Extraction 1,084 49% 7% 28% 41% 44% 7% 2% 41% 2% 3% 10% 0% 13%
83 First-Line Supervisors of Personal Service Workers Personal Care and Service 4,078 50% 10% 13% 28% 32% 2% 3% 17% 14% 4% 9% 39% 30%
84 Preschool and Kindergarten Teachers Education, Training, and Library 8,230 32% 2% 2% 6% 17% 2% 4% 13% 16% 7% 10% 70% 52%
85 First-Line Supervisors of Food Preparation and Serving Workers Food Preparation and Serving 7,933 55% 11% 15% 28% 30% 3% 4% 22% 19% 4% 11% 32% 20%
86 First-Line Supervisors of Non-Retail Sales Sales and Related 21,939 43% 3% 9% 18% 22% 4% 4% 12% 11% 4% 7% 60% 47%
87 Editors Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 16,132 17% 0% 1% 2% 6% 1% 1% 4% 14% 1% 4% 92% 74%
88 Photographers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 8,187 38% 2% 5% 7% 15% 3% 3% 14% 12% 3% 6% 71% 58%
89 Industrial and Refractory Machinery Mechanics Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 1,692 68% 10% 26% 59% 28% 2% 5% 21% 21% 0% 15% 8% 4%
90 Administrative Services Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 2,636 27% 3% 15% 20% 23% 2% 0% 9% 18% 19% 4% 47% 41%
91 Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 48,010 83% 28% 39% 45% 40% 5% 3% 13% 8% 3% 4% 6% 7%
92 Physician Assistants Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 3,623 45% 2% 0% 1% 6% 1% 3% 3% 4% 8% 19% 85% 67%
93 Dispatchers Office and Administrative Support 5,952 31% 6% 15% 37% 51% 10% 0% 22% 16% 13% 8% 12% 11%
94 Other Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers Including Wind Turbine Service Technicians, and Commercial Divers, and Signal and Track Switch Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 3,303 57% 12% 28% 47% 30% 3% 0% 13% 12% 7% 8% 17% 22%
95 Agents and Business Managers of Artists, Performers, and Athletes Business Operations Specialists 4,486 16% 2% 0% 9% 0% 4% 0% 7% 0% 2% 0% 77% 100%
96 First-Line Supervisors of Housekeeping and Janitorial Workers Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 5,186 58% 10% 25% 55% 42% 8% 5% 12% 9% 7% 12% 8% 7%
97 Miscellaneous food preparation and serving related workers including dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers Food Preparation and Serving 10,059 79% 30% 44% 47% 36% 4% 2% 12% 8% 3% 2% 5% 7%
98 Sales Representatives, Services, All Other Sales and Related 10,875 27% 1% 11% 11% 11% 7% 5% 14% 20% 9% 4% 57% 49%
99 Tour and Travel Guides Personal Care and Service 1,975 47% 18% 6% 10% 35% 1% 3% 13% 14% 8% 14% 50% 27%
100 Library Assistants, Clerical Office and Administrative Support 2,022 29% 3% 10% 25% 12% 7% 11% 29% 39% 10% 2% 26% 25%
101 Automotive and Watercraft Service Attendants Transportation and Material Moving 1,207 72% 8% 28% 67% 49% 0% 2% 0% 2% 16% 1% 8% 18%
102 Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products Business Operations Specialists 6,442 29% 1% 2% 14% 10% 2% 5% 11% 14% 6% 5% 67% 63%
103 Advertising Sales Agents Sales and Related 9,627 16% 1% 1% 6% 18% 2% 3% 6% 7% 2% 2% 84% 70%
104 Aircraft Mechanics and Service Technicians Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 1,114 44% 6% 18% 38% 8% 10% 0% 5% 31% 11% 35% 29% 9%
105 Chief executives and legislators Management, Business, Science, and Arts 23,843 28% 0% 3% 4% 15% 2% 1% 10% 6% 3% 4% 81% 71%
106 Customer Service Representatives Office and Administrative Support 36,165 37% 5% 11% 21% 23% 6% 7% 23% 20% 11% 10% 35% 30%
107 Athletes, Coaches, Umpires, and Related Workers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 2,631 33% 6% 8% 8% 16% 11% 3% 24% 24% 0% 6% 51% 43%
108 Insurance Sales Agents Sales and Related 6,321 36% 4% 7% 15% 20% 1% 1% 15% 15% 5% 10% 59% 47%
109 Artists and Related Workers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 12,284 29% 1% 5% 2% 5% 1% 2% 9% 10% 3% 4% 83% 74%
110 Miscellaneous Managers, Including Funeral Directors, Funeral Service Managers and Postmasters and Mail Superintendents Management, Business, Science, and Arts 61,379 34% 1% 6% 9% 12% 2% 2% 9% 9% 4% 7% 74% 64%
111 Broadcast and Sound Engineering Technicians and Radio Operators, and media and communication equipment workers, all other Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 3,590 14% 0% 0% 12% 22% 10% 0% 19% 25% 6% 16% 53% 37%
112 Librarians Education, Training, and Library 4,124 28% 0% 1% 2% 1% 1% 0% 2% 12% 4% 2% 91% 83%
113 Nursing, Psychiatric, and Home Health Aides Healthcare Support 107,741 76% 21% 28% 37% 39% 7% 4% 18% 12% 8% 7% 9% 11%
114 Other Business Operations Specialists Business Operations Specialists 9,969 34% 1% 2% 5% 10% 2% 3% 12% 12% 4% 11% 76% 63%
115 Barbers Personal Care and Service 3,027 70% 14% 25% 67% 52% 3% 3% 12% 6% 0% 7% 4% 6%
116 Designers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 40,513 34% 1% 4% 5% 9% 2% 2% 10% 8% 6% 10% 77% 67%
117 Education Administrators Management, Business, Science, and Arts 19,274 24% 2% 1% 4% 8% 2% 2% 6% 7% 4% 10% 83% 72%
118 Couriers and Messengers Office and Administrative Support 9,304 52% 15% 26% 39% 32% 7% 4% 24% 23% 7% 4% 8% 12%
119 Structural Iron and Steel Workers Construction and Extraction 1,028 44% 0% 24% 63% 39% 2% 7% 21% 5% 0% 5% 14% 20%
120 Fundraisers Business Operations Specialists 1,789 8% 0% 0% 3% 0% 0% 14% 8% 13% 1% 0% 88% 73%
121 Supervisors, Protective Service Workers, All Other Protective Service 2,556 32% 5% 7% 24% 28% 6% 2% 22% 19% 6% 12% 38% 31%
122 Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters Transportation and Material Moving 1,371 26% 4% 18% 41% 34% 7% 4% 30% 0% 13% 29% 6% 15%
123 Baggage Porters, Bellhops, and Concierges Personal Care and Service 13,567 49% 15% 23% 36% 36% 5% 4% 27% 20% 6% 7% 11% 11%
124 Word Processors and Typists Office and Administrative Support 7,714 36% 5% 8% 28% 28% 7% 5% 21% 19% 9% 13% 29% 27%
125 Computer, Automated Teller, and Office Machine Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 5,782 43% 1% 2% 17% 21% 4% 1% 32% 29% 12% 20% 35% 27%
126 Elementary and Middle School Teachers Education, Training, and Library 59,891 25% 1% 1% 1% 2% 1% 1% 4% 4% 2% 4% 91% 87%
127 Recreation and Fitness Workers Personal Care and Service 8,985 23% 5% 1% 14% 28% 6% 5% 25% 21% 5% 10% 45% 35%
128 Roofers Construction and Extraction 1,586 68% 37% 35% 40% 46% 0% 0% 10% 6% 10% 8% 3% 5%
129 Laundry and Dry-Cleaning Workers Production 4,837 83% 41% 40% 28% 39% 8% 2% 8% 6% 7% 1% 7% 12%
130 Lifeguards and Other Protective Service Workers Protective Service 2,562 29% 27% 41% 33% 17% 3% 6% 21% 24% 4% 4% 12% 8%
131 Janitors and Building Cleaners Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance 78,358 64% 35% 40% 43% 38% 5% 3% 11% 7% 3% 4% 2% 8%
132 Bus Drivers Transportation and Material Moving 19,229 47% 8% 21% 51% 42% 7% 3% 19% 15% 8% 5% 7% 12%
133 Medical, Dental, and Ophthalmic Laboratory Technicians Production 1,549 71% 2% 9% 43% 40% 0% 0% 25% 20% 13% 10% 17% 21%
134 Secondary School Teachers Education, Training, and Library 15,012 25% 0% 3% 1% 1% 0% 0% 4% 2% 1% 2% 93% 92%
135 Special Education Teachers Education, Training, and Library 5,267 25% 1% 5% 4% 5% 1% 2% 8% 1% 1% 7% 85% 80%
136 Elevator Installers and Repairers Construction and Extraction 1,751 31% 7% 25% 59% 27% 5% 4% 13% 18% 10% 14% 6% 12%
137 Firefighters Protective Service 5,485 8% 0% 0% 12% 21% 5% 12% 32% 21% 15% 11% 36% 35%
138 Credit Analysts Financial Specialists 1,116 57% 0% 0% 0% 2% 4% 9% 6% 0% 0% 7% 89% 82%
139 Biological Scientists Life, Physical, and Social Science 1,207 53% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 3% 8% 0% 2% 97% 90%
140 Miscellaneous metal workers and plastic workers including milling and planing machine setters, and multiple machine tool setters, and lay-out workers Production 1,320 55% 43% 30% 37% 55% 0% 0% 18% 12% 2% 4% 0% 0%
141 Archivists, Curators, and Museum Technicians Education, Training, and Library 2,495 23% 0% 5% 3% 4% 1% 0% 1% 0% 2% 0% 92% 90%
142 Social Workers Community and Social Services 26,666 33% 1% 1% 7% 5% 1% 1% 7% 8% 5% 8% 80% 77%
143 Occupational Therapists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 2,202 35% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 2% 4% 98% 96%
144 Security Guards and Gaming Surveillance Officers Protective Service 44,354 45% 12% 19% 42% 40% 8% 4% 22% 17% 7% 8% 10% 12%
145 Drywall Installers, Ceiling Tile Installers, and Tapers Construction and Extraction 1,990 91% 37% 46% 47% 41% 9% 0% 0% 11% 0% 0% 7% 2%
146 Other Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 1,167 50% 0% 13% 11% 5% 6% 0% 28% 4% 5% 11% 50% 68%
147 News Analysts, Reporters and Correspondents Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 6,538 27% 0% 0% 0% 5% 0% 1% 4% 6% 0% 2% 96% 86%
148 Credit Counselors and Loan Officers Financial Specialists 3,672 44% 0% 2% 8% 4% 4% 2% 16% 13% 6% 16% 66% 62%
149 Food Servers, Nonrestaurant Food Preparation and Serving 4,619 63% 24% 29% 29% 42% 15% 5% 17% 10% 7% 2% 8% 12%
150 Dentists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 3,218 55% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 100% 99%
151 Lodging Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 2,399 47% 3% 1% 12% 16% 6% 4% 12% 9% 5% 14% 61% 55%
152 Personal Financial Advisors Financial Specialists 13,717 30% 0% 0% 2% 3% 0% 1% 5% 8% 2% 3% 91% 85%
153 Tellers Office and Administrative Support 8,833 51% 1% 4% 22% 27% 8% 3% 37% 30% 8% 15% 24% 21%
154 Human Resources Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 6,909 32% 1% 3% 7% 7% 4% 5% 12% 13% 4% 8% 71% 64%
155 Taxi Drivers and Chauffeurs Transportation and Material Moving 42,788 88% 18% 24% 38% 35% 9% 4% 16% 11% 7% 6% 13% 20%
156 Computer Operators Office and Administrative Support 3,242 39% 2% 6% 30% 36% 2% 2% 21% 14% 16% 14% 28% 29%
157 Electricians Construction and Extraction 14,035 54% 7% 11% 35% 42% 5% 5% 22% 10% 21% 14% 11% 18%
158 General and Operations Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 16,011 32% 2% 5% 9% 9% 4% 2% 13% 8% 4% 9% 69% 67%
159 Budget Analysts Financial Specialists 1,450 18% 0% 0% 9% 5% 4% 0% 2% 5% 0% 0% 86% 90%
160 Lawyers, and judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers Legal 52,197 16% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 99% 98%
161 Emergency Medical Technicians and Paramedics Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 3,640 32% 1% 0% 15% 18% 9% 7% 45% 44% 21% 27% 9% 4%
162 Physical Therapists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 4,044 49% 0% 0% 4% 2% 0% 0% 4% 1% 1% 2% 91% 95%
163 Clergy Community and Social Services 5,783 47% 6% 3% 10% 10% 1% 3% 4% 7% 4% 5% 74% 72%
164 Management Analysts Business Operations Specialists 18,818 34% 0% 1% 3% 5% 1% 0% 4% 7% 2% 2% 90% 85%
165 Electrical Power-Line Installers and Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 1,261 33% 7% 6% 43% 40% 10% 5% 13% 27% 7% 7% 21% 15%
166 Crossing Guards Protective Service 2,549 35% 22% 26% 45% 42% 12% 2% 11% 19% 9% 6% 1% 5%
167 Bill and Account Collectors Office and Administrative Support 1,791 40% 1% 12% 37% 24% 11% 5% 27% 20% 1% 18% 24% 22%
168 Physicians and Surgeons Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 27,786 45% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 1% 99% 98%
169 Directors, Religious Activities and Education Community and Social Services 1,083 38% 0% 3% 5% 10% 11% 0% 15% 11% 0% 0% 68% 76%
170 Court, Municipal, and License Clerks Office and Administrative Support 1,925 25% 4% 0% 25% 25% 4% 16% 18% 10% 17% 24% 33% 25%
171 Police Officers Protective Service 16,057 25% 1% 7% 11% 6% 7% 3% 25% 25% 18% 24% 38% 35%
172 Secretaries and Administrative Assistants Office and Administrative Support 91,948 28% 3% 6% 29% 27% 7% 6% 22% 19% 12% 12% 28% 30%
173 Advertising and Promotions Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 4,641 17% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 3% 7% 1% 5% 96% 88%
174 Counselors Community and Social Services 16,647 30% 2% 2% 14% 12% 2% 4% 12% 9% 6% 12% 63% 62%
175 Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioner Support Technicians Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 5,739 49% 2% 8% 22% 24% 6% 5% 36% 27% 13% 11% 22% 26%
176 Dental Hygienists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 1,500 35% 0% 12% 10% 0% 3% 0% 4% 10% 66% 36% 17% 42%
177 Marketing and Sales Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 20,381 26% 0% 1% 3% 4% 1% 1% 9% 8% 4% 7% 84% 79%
178 Paralegals and Legal Assistants Legal 14,808 27% 1% 2% 7% 11% 3% 3% 14% 10% 8% 12% 67% 62%
179 Accountants and Auditors Financial Specialists 61,853 44% 0% 1% 3% 2% 1% 1% 3% 3% 4% 6% 89% 87%
180 Architects, Except Naval Architecture and Engineering 10,711 38% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 1% 2% 2% 2% 1% 95% 96%
181 Psychologists Life, Physical, and Social Science 7,803 19% 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0% 98% 99%
182 First-Line Supervisors of Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 3,413 40% 8% 18% 37% 26% 2% 7% 24% 9% 7% 8% 22% 32%
183 Producers and Directors Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 14,748 17% 0% 1% 2% 3% 1% 1% 6% 1% 4% 9% 86% 85%
184 Miscellaneous Community and Social Service Specialists Community and Social Services 8,333 36% 6% 7% 17% 19% 5% 4% 16% 8% 6% 12% 50% 50%
185 Shipping, Receiving, and Traffic Clerks Office and Administrative Support 5,942 46% 14% 21% 49% 44% 3% 6% 19% 14% 10% 2% 6% 14%
186 Postsecondary Teachers Education, Training, and Library 30,316 32% 0% 1% 1% 1% 1% 0% 3% 1% 1% 1% 95% 96%
187 File Clerks Office and Administrative Support 8,105 35% 12% 14% 26% 33% 8% 5% 29% 12% 5% 12% 20% 23%
188 Miscellaneous office and administrative support workers including desktop publishers Office and Administrative Support 16,480 33% 2% 15% 17% 18% 4% 5% 18% 13% 9% 14% 50% 36%
189 Bailiffs, Correctional Officers, and Jailers Protective Service 6,820 17% 4% 0% 19% 24% 6% 0% 34% 33% 15% 27% 22% 16%
190 Reservation and Transportation Ticket Agents and Travel Clerks Office and Administrative Support 5,389 45% 5% 6% 29% 33% 9% 4% 29% 18% 6% 15% 22% 25%
191 Registered Nurses Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 45,836 58% 0% 0% 1% 2% 1% 1% 6% 3% 21% 21% 70% 72%
192 Maintenance and Repair Workers, General Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 6,046 60% 21% 21% 38% 39% 11% 6% 15% 10% 8% 10% 8% 14%
193 Bus and Truck Mechanics and Diesel Engine Specialists Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 3,041 53% 13% 13% 43% 52% 10% 10% 22% 8% 10% 7% 2% 10%
194 Speech Language Pathologists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 2,971 16% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 100% 100%
195 Licensed Practical and Licensed Vocational Nurses Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 9,415 64% 2% 4% 30% 33% 7% 10% 48% 33% 9% 10% 4% 10%
196 Detectives and Criminal Investigators Protective Service 3,695 21% 2% 7% 4% 9% 5% 9% 33% 9% 12% 12% 44% 54%
197 Receptionists and Information Clerks Office and Administrative Support 27,120 36% 6% 10% 34% 25% 7% 5% 24% 25% 9% 13% 20% 22%
198 Compliance Officers, Except Agriculture, Construction, Health and Safety, and Transportation Business Operations Specialists 4,980 44% 0% 0% 3% 8% 4% 3% 17% 8% 8% 10% 68% 72%
199 Miscellaneous Legal Support Workers Legal 5,906 25% 2% 5% 11% 8% 6% 3% 8% 14% 9% 8% 64% 62%
200 Information and Record Clerks, All Other Office and Administrative Support 1,874 39% 5% 7% 19% 31% 7% 0% 27% 18% 11% 6% 32% 37%
201 Other Teachers and Instructors Education, Training, and Library 21,582 30% 4% 3% 11% 15% 4% 2% 17% 10% 3% 9% 61% 61%
202 Writers and Authors Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 14,821 14% 0% 1% 2% 2% 0% 0% 3% 1% 0% 2% 94% 93%
203 Miscellaneous material moving workers including shuttle car operators, and tank car, truck, and ship loaders Transportation and Material Moving 1,507 43% 34% 41% 43% 24% 3% 0% 7% 21% 11% 0% 2% 14%
204 Medical Records and Health Information Technicians Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 1,439 42% 13% 6% 23% 44% 14% 8% 23% 21% 4% 2% 22% 19%
205 Dieticians and Nutritionists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 2,270 55% 5% 4% 15% 7% 0% 1% 1% 6% 5% 0% 73% 81%
206 Financial Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 32,655 37% 1% 1% 7% 7% 2% 2% 8% 6% 6% 6% 76% 77%
207 Medical Assistants and Other Healthcare Support Occupations, except dental assistants Healthcare Support 14,933 52% 6% 6% 29% 27% 8% 6% 25% 25% 13% 16% 18% 20%
208 Insurance Claims and Policy Processing Clerks Office and Administrative Support 3,538 45% 0% 6% 36% 15% 10% 8% 19% 29% 11% 13% 25% 29%
209 Financial Analysts Financial Specialists 7,889 29% 0% 0% 2% 2% 0% 1% 1% 0% 2% 1% 95% 96%
210 Telemarketers Sales and Related 1,522 19% 4% 20% 39% 0% 11% 0% 18% 20% 4% 15% 23% 44%
211 Market and Survey Researchers Life, Physical, and Social Science 3,841 29% 1% 0% 0% 2% 1% 0% 6% 4% 2% 2% 91% 93%
212 Postal Service Mail Carriers Office and Administrative Support 6,679 40% 3% 6% 36% 25% 8% 4% 27% 30% 12% 16% 15% 19%
213 Public Relations Specialists Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 8,971 16% 0% 0% 0% 0% 1% 2% 3% 5% 1% 7% 95% 87%
214 Office Clerks, General Office and Administrative Support 39,126 38% 5% 9% 29% 25% 6% 5% 27% 19% 8% 13% 25% 30%
215 Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics and Installers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 4,323 52% 10% 19% 44% 28% 10% 7% 15% 16% 10% 11% 10% 19%
216 Securities, Commodities, and Financial Services Sales Agents Sales and Related 28,172 28% 0% 1% 4% 2% 1% 1% 6% 6% 1% 4% 88% 87%
217 Actuaries Computer and Mathematical 1,279 24% 0% 0% 0% 4% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 100% 96%
218 Travel Agents Sales and Related 2,652 54% 2% 1% 24% 24% 5% 5% 16% 11% 12% 13% 41% 45%
219 Supervisors of Transportation and Material Moving Workers Transportation and Material Moving 5,190 37% 9% 11% 34% 40% 11% 1% 19% 17% 11% 15% 16% 17%
220 Physical Scientists, All Other Life, Physical, and Social Science 2,917 51% 0% 1% 0% 2% 0% 2% 2% 0% 0% 0% 98% 95%
221 Hazardous Materials Removal Workers Construction and Extraction 1,242 64% 7% 12% 29% 43% 20% 9% 34% 17% 0% 8% 11% 10%
222 First-Line Supervisors of Office and Administrative Support Workers Office and Administrative Support 32,097 34% 2% 5% 22% 21% 6% 4% 20% 14% 10% 10% 39% 47%
223 Musicians, Singers, and Related Workers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 9,242 31% 3% 4% 12% 13% 5% 5% 17% 13% 7% 7% 56% 59%
224 Photographic Process Workers and Processing Machine Operators Production 1,515 37% 5% 3% 17% 13% 3% 5% 15% 17% 6% 13% 53% 49%
225 Bookkeeping, Accounting, and Auditing Clerks Office and Administrative Support 25,054 46% 3% 5% 29% 22% 7% 5% 25% 21% 7% 12% 29% 35%
226 Social and Community Service Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 12,030 22% 0% 3% 7% 3% 3% 2% 4% 5% 5% 6% 80% 81%
227 Hotel, Motel, and Resort Desk Clerks Office and Administrative Support 2,713 56% 0% 5% 35% 23% 3% 4% 38% 29% 6% 17% 18% 22%
228 Transportation Attendants Personal Care and Service 4,183 34% 5% 5% 39% 33% 5% 1% 13% 22% 13% 10% 25% 29%
229 Postal Service Mail Sorters, Processors, and Processing Machine Operators Office and Administrative Support 2,426 39% 9% 15% 35% 30% 15% 0% 26% 21% 8% 15% 8% 19%
230 Electrical and Electronics Engineers Architecture and Engineering 2,148 53% 0% 0% 7% 4% 5% 0% 11% 11% 10% 10% 67% 75%
231 Computer Scientists and Systems Analysts Computer and Mathematical 20,430 44% 1% 2% 6% 4% 3% 2% 9% 6% 5% 7% 75% 79%
232 Computer and Information Systems Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 8,319 43% 0% 1% 5% 2% 1% 0% 4% 5% 5% 2% 85% 90%
233 Interviewers, Except Eligibility and Loan Office and Administrative Support 3,846 32% 2% 1% 20% 15% 6% 2% 19% 17% 11% 21% 43% 43%
234 Claims Adjusters, Appraisers, Examiners, and Investigators Business Operations Specialists 3,502 36% 2% 9% 13% 9% 4% 1% 18% 13% 16% 12% 47% 56%
235 Civil Engineers Architecture and Engineering 4,490 60% 0% 1% 3% 1% 0% 0% 7% 1% 1% 3% 89% 95%
236 Tax Preparers Financial Specialists 1,601 57% 0% 3% 11% 5% 3% 0% 18% 14% 2% 2% 67% 76%
237 Drafters Architecture and Engineering 2,315 56% 4% 4% 14% 7% 2% 0% 8% 15% 20% 17% 52% 57%
238 Network Systems and Data Communications Analysts Computer and Mathematical 8,924 36% 1% 0% 3% 4% 3% 5% 13% 8% 6% 6% 74% 78%
239 Miscellaneous Social Scientists, Including Survey Researchers and Sociologists Life, Physical, and Social Science 1,545 31% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 5% 4% 6% 5% 89% 91%
240 Financial Specialists, All Other Financial Specialists 2,911 33% 0% 0% 5% 12% 2% 2% 18% 7% 4% 2% 72% 78%
241 Postal Service Clerks Office and Administrative Support 4,489 33% 6% 7% 47% 46% 11% 3% 24% 18% 6% 9% 5% 16%
242 Medical Scientists, and Life Scientists, All Other Life, Physical, and Social Science 4,026 70% 0% 1% 2% 0% 0% 0% 2% 0% 0% 0% 96% 99%
243 Medical and Health Services Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 13,451 40% 1% 2% 11% 9% 3% 1% 12% 7% 10% 12% 62% 69%
244 Data Entry Keyers Office and Administrative Support 11,125 38% 5% 9% 28% 23% 7% 5% 25% 14% 12% 18% 23% 31%
245 Network and Computer Systems Administrators Computer and Mathematical 4,108 39% 2% 2% 4% 6% 3% 1% 15% 11% 20% 11% 56% 68%
246 Industrial Truck and Tractor Operators Transportation and Material Moving 1,948 51% 38% 31% 45% 42% 0% 0% 15% 8% 2% 7% 0% 12%
247 Software Developers, Applications and Systems Software Computer and Mathematical 10,273 48% 1% 0% 3% 1% 1% 1% 8% 6% 4% 2% 83% 90%
248 Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate Financial Specialists 1,194 37% 0% 5% 19% 0% 4% 0% 24% 11% 6% 21% 48% 63%
249 Human Resources Assistants, Except Payroll and Timekeeping Office and Administrative Support 1,683 29% 0% 6% 12% 6% 4% 3% 17% 0% 13% 17% 53% 68%
250 Mail Clerks and Mail Machine Operators, Except Postal Service Office and Administrative Support 3,764 34% 15% 14% 52% 41% 2% 7% 22% 17% 3% 11% 5% 11%
251 Database Administrators Computer and Mathematical 1,733 44% 0% 0% 6% 10% 2% 0% 8% 5% 15% 4% 68% 81%
252 Purchasing Agents, Except Wholesale, Retail, and Farm Products Business Operations Specialists 3,071 30% 2% #DIV/0! 17% #DIV/0! 1% #DIV/0! 17% #DIV/0! 8% #DIV/0! 54% #DIV/0!
253 Meeting and Convention Planners Business Operations Specialists 2,660 17% 1% 0% 9% 0% 7% 0% 6% 10% 3% 15% 74% 75%
254 Purchasing Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 2,409 32% 1% 0% 4% 7% 4% 0% 20% 3% 6% 14% 67% 77%
255 Radio and Telecommunications Equipment Installers and Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 3,289 40% 9% 10% 23% 24% 4% 1% 17% 6% 16% 12% 30% 47%
256 Dental Assistants Healthcare Support 4,722 53% 12% 8% 31% 33% 5% 7% 30% 13% 11% 19% 10% 21%
257 Pharmacists Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 4,142 59% 0% 1% 0% 1% 0% 1% 19% 7% 1% 1% 80% 91%
258 Teacher Assistants Education, Training, and Library 28,360 35% 7% 9% 34% 23% 9% 8% 23% 19% 12% 14% 15% 28%
259 Billing and Posting Clerks Office and Administrative Support 9,915 36% 3% 4% 23% 20% 8% 5% 28% 20% 12% 12% 26% 39%
260 Telecommunications Line Installers and Repairers Installation, Maintenance, and Repair Workers 2,918 39% 6% 2% 23% 36% 6% 3% 33% 13% 11% 13% 21% 33%
261 Loan Interviewers and Clerks Office and Administrative Support 1,036 35% 0% 0% 14% 12% 2% 4% 24% 19% 19% 6% 40% 60%
262 Computer Hardware Engineers Architecture and Engineering 1,317 63% 0% 0% 7% 7% 0% 0% 13% 8% 32% 19% 48% 65%
263 Engineering Technicians, Except Drafters Architecture and Engineering 3,571 37% 5% 3% 31% 16% 7% 1% 16% 23% 10% 19% 31% 38%
264 Telephone Operators Office and Administrative Support 1,487 35% 26% 6% 28% 14% 7% 7% 28% 46% 3% 8% 9% 19%
265 Public Relations and Fundraising Managers Management, Business, Science, and Arts 1,996 21% 0% 0% 4% 0% 0% 0% 4% 0% 1% 0% 90% 100%
266 Diagnostic Related Technologists and Technicians Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 3,638 47% 0% 0% 23% 10% 3% 3% 14% 10% 24% 31% 35% 46%
267 Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks Office and Administrative Support 3,517 26% 4% #DIV/0! 32% #DIV/0! 10% #DIV/0! 22% #DIV/0! 11% #DIV/0! 22% #DIV/0!
268 Miscellaneous Media and Communication Workers Arts, Design, Entertainment, Sports, and Media 3,445 61% 0% 3% 6% 8% 1% 2% 32% 11% 6% 3% 54% 73%
269 Subway, Streetcar, and Other Rail Transportation Workers Transportation and Material Moving 1,110 26% 0% 5% 51% 29% 18% 6% 9% 21% 14% 12% 8% 26%
270 Parking Lot Attendants Transportation and Material Moving 4,931 78% 33% 23% 40% 35% 3% 3% 17% 12% 2% 7% 4% 20%
271 Other Life, Physical, and Social Science Technicians Life, Physical, and Social Science 2,285 36% 0% 2% 13% 12% 2% 0% 18% 5% 5% 7% 62% 73%
272 Locomotive Engineers and Operators Transportation and Material Moving 1,520 34% 10% 3% 29% 28% 7% 0% 25% 17% 19% 18% 10% 34%
273 Computer Programmers Computer and Mathematical 12,517 50% 1% 0% 5% 0% 1% 1% 10% 3% 7% 3% 77% 93%
274 Mechanical Engineers Architecture and Engineering 1,289 53% 0% 0% 38% 22% 0% 4% 19% 12% 7% 16% 36% 47%
275 Miscellaneous engineeers including nuclear engineers Architecture and Engineering 2,876 47% 0% 1% 7% 0% 3% 0% 12% 3% 0% 3% 79% 93%
276 Construction and Building Inspectors Construction and Extraction 1,546 48% 4% 6% 22% 2% 12% 2% 12% 19% 19% 12% 30% 59%
277 Office Machine Operators, Except Computer Office and Administrative Support 1,302 34% 16% 3% 28% 33% 14% 17% 26% 18% 13% 6% 3% 23%
278 Operations Research Analysts Computer and Mathematical 1,654 43% 0% 0% 10% 0% 8% 0% 6% 3% 4% 0% 71% 97%
279 Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians Healthcare Practitioners and Technical 7,335 57% 6% 1% 11% 8% 2% 0% 18% 9% 10% 4% 53% 78%
280 First-Line Supervisors of Police and Detectives Protective Service 2,740 16% 0% 0% 14% 4% 8% 4% 22% 20% 15% 0% 42% 72%
281 Physical Therapist Assistants and Aides Healthcare Support 1,059 65% 12% 0% 18% 22% 0% 5% 18% 10% 30% 28% 23% 35%
282 Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents Financial Specialists 1,500 42% 0% 0% 10% 0% 3% 0% 20% 9% 11% 9% 56% 82%
283 Eligibility Interviewers, Government Programs Office and Administrative Support 1,597 42% 8% 3% 30% 10% 5% 8% 9% 9% 20% 17% 28% 53%
284 Stationary Engineers and Boiler Operators Production 2,398 45% 14% 10% 46% 35% 5% 4% 22% 9% 6% 11% 7% 31%
285 Computer Support Specialists Computer and Mathematical 8,271 38% 2% 0% 14% 5% 11% 2% 18% 8% 9% 7% 46% 78%
286 Transportation Inspectors Transportation and Material Moving 1,530 57% 3% 1% 40% 22% 9% 5% 26% 13% 5% 10% 16% 49%
287 Other Education, Training, and Library Workers Education, Training, and Library 2,117 27% 7% 0% 9% 0% 0% 6% 19% 0% 5% 2% 60% 92%

Note: In all cases, data is for occupations with more than 1,000 workers.

General operating support for the Center for an Urban Future (CUF) is provided by the Bernard F. and Alva B. Gimbel Foundation. CUF would also like to acknowledge the Altman Foundation for its generous support of the Center's research on workforce development issues.

Some data in this brief originally appeared in A City of Immigrant Workers, a report published in April 2016 by the Center for an Urban Future and the Center for Popular Democracy with funding from the Ford Foundation and the New York Foundation.